Remember to Vent

A critical step to achieving proper pressure inside a pressure canner is allowing it to VENT. What does this mean?

Venting is also “exhausting” the canner, a process of letting steam (and air) come out of the canner through the vent pipe for a period of time before beginning the pressure processing time.  Air trapped in a canner lowers the processing temperature and results in under processing of low-acid foods.  To be safe, the USDA recommends that all types of pressure canners must be vented 10 minutes before they are pressurized.

WHY VENT? 

It is STEAM, not water, that does the processing in a pressure canner. Low-acid foods (foods with a pH of 4.6 or higher such as all vegetables excluding tomatoes, meats, seafood, soups and sauces) are not acidic enough to destroy bacteria, their spores, and the toxins they produce or prevent the growth of botulinum bacteria in a vacuum.  The heat-resistant spores produced by C. botulinum can only be destroyed with the correct combination of temperature, pressure, and tested time. Temperatures in the range of 240°F to 250°F (115°C to 121°C) are needed to kill spores (USDA 2015). Water can get no hotter than the boiling point (212ºF, 100ºC), but steam can. Steam trapped in the canner increases the atmospheric pressure inside the canner causing the boiling point of water to increase to 240ºF-250ºF, the temperature needed to destroy bacteria and C. botulinum, that would otherwise be free to grow in a vacuum sealed jar.

In order to reach the optimum temperature to destroy botulinum bacteria, air inside the canner must be exhausted to allow space for a pure steam environment to build. There is a vast amount of air in a canner due to the space between the water level and the lid as well as the air that escapes from inside the jars and from the water. The most “jar air” comes from those with raw-packed foods.

Image Source: USDA Complete Guide to Home CAnning

HOW TO VENT

The vent or petcock is a short hollow pipe that sticks up above the canner lid.  When open, it allows air and steam to escape from the canner.  When closed, it holds steam inside. To vent a canner, leave the vent port uncovered or manually open the petcock (some older models).  After placing jars inside the warm canner and securing the canner lid, set the burner on high. Watch for steam to escape from the vent pipe. When a strong, visible, funnel-shaped steam cone emerges, set a timer for 10 minutes and let the canner continuously steam. After the 10 minutes, add the weight or counterweight to the vent or close the petcock to pressurize the canner.

WHAT HAPPENS DURING VENTING?

As the water boils inside the canner, the empty spaces become a mixture of steam and air. As steam increases, it pushes the air out creating a pure steam environment.  USDA processing times are based upon a pure steam environment which makes venting so very important.

In addition to venting, remember to adjust for altitude. Most recipes list processing time based on altitudes near sea level. To ensure the health of those who enjoy your foods, always use a tested recipe and follow instructions. Remember to VENT for 10 minutes to ensure that any and all microorganisms are destroyed.

Source: National Center for Home Food Preservation and USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning (2015)

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

More Posts

Are You Prepared for a Power Outage?

Spring often brings unsettled weather.  This year has been no exception as Iowa and other parts of the country have already experienced unprecedented winds, powerful storms and tornadoes causing personal loss, major damage and power outages. While personal loss and damage are devastating, power outages can be a major inconvenience.  To prepare and stay safe, it’s important to know steps you can take before, during and after a power outage.

Power outages can be over almost as quickly as begun, but some can last much longer — up to days or even weeks. This depends on the severity of the storm and what damage has been done to power lines and systems. A power outage disrupts everyday life as it shuts down communications, water, transportation and services, closes businesses, causes food spoilage, and prevents use of medical devices.

Before a Power Outage – Prepare

Preparation can keep the most important people in your world safe when bad weather hits.  Here’s some quick tips on how to prepare:

  • Have a plan that all family members know and understand. 
  • Take an inventory of items in the home and keep it up to date.
  • Plan for alternative power sources and test in advance—batteries, portable generator (fuel), power banks.
  • Build an emergency kit that includes 3-days of non-perishable foods and bottled water; important medications; blankets; personal hygiene items; first aid supplies; flashlights.
  • Talk to your medical provider about medical devices powered by electricity and refrigerated medicines. Find out how long medication can be stored at higher temperatures and get specific guidance for any medications that are critical for life.
  • Place thermometers in freezers and refrigerators to monitor temperature when power returns.  A container of water (or ice cubes) in the freezer is also a good indicator of temperatures going above 32ºF.
  • Remove or secure items outside of the home that can blow or become weapons.
  • Trim tree branches overhanging a house and clean gutters.
  • Get a weather alarm with battery backup (keep batteries fresh) and/or sign up for weather alert notifications from local radio or tv stations.
  • Have your phone charged.
  • Freeze jugs of water.

During a Power Outage Stay Safe

The lights are out, appliances, and all electrical equipment without battery or power backup have stopped running. Now what?

  • Report downed power lines. Do not touch down lines nor attempt to remove trees which may be tangled in downed lines.
  • Turn off and unplug all unnecessary electrical equipment, including sensitive electronics. Leave a lamp or night light connected to indicate when the power does come back on.
  • Turn off or disconnect any appliances, equipment or electronics you were using when the power went out. When the power comes back on, surges or spikes can damage equipment.
  • Keep refrigerator and freezer doors closed. Food is safe in a securely closed refrigerator for up to 4 hours. In a freezer it depends on how full it is — the fuller your freezer, the longer it can last. A full freezer can last up to 48 hours, and a half-freezer can last up to 24 hours. Place frozen jugs of water in refrigerator to help maintain coldness.
  • Avoid using candles and your phone more than necessary.
  • Prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using generators, camp stoves or charcoal grills; these items should always be used outdoors and at least 20 feet away from windows. Never use a gas stovetop or oven to heat your home.

After a Power Outage – Assess

Recovery begins.

  • Throw out any unsafe food, particularly meat, poultry, fish, eggs and leftovers that have been exposed to temperatures higher than 40-degrees F for two hours or more or that have an unusual odor, color or texture.  When in doubt, throw it out. For additional help with food after a power outage, visit Play It Safe With Food After a Power Outage .
  • If the power is out for more than a day, discard any medication that should be refrigerated, unless the drug’s label says otherwise. Consult your doctor or pharmacist immediately for a new supply.
  • Plug in appliances and electric equipment including sump pumps. Check to make sure each is working properly.  Note anything that is not working properly and report to your insurance agent.
  • Note damage done to home or property and report to your insurance agent.
  • Call AnswerLine at 800-262-3804 with food safety questions or water/mold clean up should water get into the home.

For more helpful information and tips, visit Ready.  For a quick visual reminder, see this short YouTube video prepared by Farm Bureau Financial Services. One can never be reminded too often or be too prepared when storms strike and the power goes out.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

More Posts

What is May Day?

May Day is celebrated on May 1.  It is an old day of celebration dating back to the Roman Republic.  Over its many years, there have been different meanings, festivities, and representations of May Day. Beginning as a day marked with ceremonies, dances, and feasting, it celebrated the rite of spring.  It also marks the half way point between the Spring Equinox and the Summer Solace.  In addition, it has been known as Workers’ Day or International Workers’ Day, a day commemorating the historic struggles and gains made by workers and labors.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, May Day traditions changed to leaving a gift basket filled with flowers or treats at the front door of a neighbor, friend, or loved one.  The giver would leave a basket or cone of treats, ring the doorbell, shout “‘May Basket!” and run away.  In some communities, hanging a May basket on someone’s door was a chance to express romantic interest.  If the recipient caught the giver, he or she was entitled to a kiss.  It has also been celebrated with dancing and singing around a pole laced with streamers or ribbons.  During my grade school days, we made May Day baskets filled with homemade treats, candy, or dandelions to exchange with school mates.

Today, May Day is almost forgotten. The sentiment of the day certainly has a place in modern society as a time to share a random act of kindness and celebrate spring and friendship—an opportunity to pay it forward. Baskets don’t necessarily have to be left at a front door.  Treats can be left for co-workers, teachers, children—anyone—anywhere they will find it. Earlier this spring, I was asked to make a May Basket for a group service project.  The directions were few—any kind of simple homemade basket will do; fill it with flowers, candy, or a baked and wrapped treat.

There are numerous ideas for baskets online—paper cones, styrofoam cups, fabric, tin cans, strawberry baskets—anything goes.  I decided on construction paper strips to craft a woven paper basket like I remembered making so many years ago. 

Since the basket had to be finished ahead of May 1 for distribution, I filled the basket with White Chocolate Strawberry Biscotti.  Compared to most baked goods, biscotti is very shelf-stable and will remain good for several days. Each biscotti slice was individually wrapped in clear plastic wrap and placed in the basket along with the recipe so the recipient would know the ingredients. The collection of baskets for this project will be delivered to service personnel in our community. 

Who says baskets have to be filled with flowers, candy or treats?  Don’t limit yourself.  Use imagination and creativity.  Baskets can be filled with anything appropriate for the recipient.  For example, the homeless may appreciate baskets filled with bath products, socks, non-perishable snacks or gift cards. Baskets for others could be filled with small office supplies, seed packets, cooking utensils, hair accessories, or craft supplies. The ideas are endless.  Add a little treat to brighten someone’s day with a piece of candy, a flower, or a pop of color with a piece of tissue paper.  And if making a basket isn’t for you, maybe buy a cup of coffee for a random stranger and wish them a Happy May Day. Get the kids involved; make it family activity or a youth group project (4-H, Scouts, Church).

So make a basket, ring the doorbell, and run! Spread some kindness! You’ll be glad you did! Happy May Day!

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

More Posts

Meet Rachel Sweeney

Rachel Sweeney is the newest member of the AnswerLine team!

Rachel giving a 4-H baking presentation.

AnswerLine is a new role for Rachel Sweeney, but Iowa State University Extension and Outreach is not. Rachel grew up on a diversified farm outside of Iowa City and was actively involved with Johnson County 4-H as a member of the Graham Champions 4-H Club. At an early age, she realized she could turn her interest in food and nutrition projects into a career, she decided to attend Iowa State University and major in that area graduating with bachelor’s and master’s degrees in dietetics and exercise science. After graduation, she spent a year in Nashville completing a dietetic internship at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

Rachel’s began her professional career as an ISU Extension and Outreach human sciences specialist in Nutrition and Wellness, serving southeast Iowa for nearly seven years. In this role she led food preservation workshops, food safety trainings, and nutrition trainings for child care providers. After a brief stint as a retail dietitian, she returned to ISU Extension and Outreach as a program coordinator for Iowa 4-H Youth Development’s SWITCH (School Wellness Ingetration Targeting Child Health) program, an innovative school wellness initiative designed to support and enhance school wellness programming. After two years in this role, she got a new job title, MOM, in November of 2021, and a need to balance work and family life. AnswerLine provided the perfect opportunity for her to continue to work and enjoy her young family. One month into the job, Rachel says, “I have really enjoyed my first month on the job answering client’s questions and I look forward to continuing to learn and grow in this role to best serve the citizens of Iowa and Minnesota.”

When Rachel is not answering client questions via phone or email, she is likely with her family, 5-month old son, Thomas, and husband, Jim. She enjoys gardening, cooking and baking, food preservation, traveling, and being outside. As if she isn’t busy enough with work, family, and her many interests, she is also training for the swim portion of a half-Ironman relay-team competition in June! GO Rachel!!!!!

Rachel is a member of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and stays involved with the Iowa Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

More Posts

Getting Ready for Canning Season

Spring has arrived and it won’t be long before seeds or plants will find their way into the garden.  And that means that canning season is just around the corner so it’s time to get ready!  Having equipment ready and recipes selected before the fresh produce arrives helps to assure a successful canning season.

Recipes

Choose recipes that have been developed specifically for canning and come from research-based sources like the USDA Complete Guide to Canning (2015), the National Center for Home Food Preservation, So Easy to Preserve, or Extension resources from your land-grant university.  Recipes should be followed as written; canning is a science, not an art.  Therefore, alterations to the recipes should not be made. To learn more about the risks associated with modifying canning recipes with regards to swapping ingredients, adding ingredients, or increasing or decreasing ingredients, check out Modifying Canning Recipes by South Dakota State University ExtensionPenn State Extension also has an excellent article on Ingredients Used in Home Preservation, which describes ingredients and their function in canned goods.

Equipment

Safe canning methods include the boiling water bath method, the atmospheric steam canner method, and the pressure canner method. Each method uses a different type of canner. Electric, multi-cooker appliances should not be used for canning. Water bath and atmospheric steam canners require little maintenance and are used for canning high acid foods, pickles, fruit spreads, and most tomato products. (Atmospheric steam canners can be used in place of water bath canners as long as the canning process time is 45 minutes or less.)  Water bath canners have fitted lids and removable perforated or shaped-wire racks. The canner must be deep enough that at least 1 to 2 inches of briskly boiling water covers the tops of jars during processing.  All canners should be checked for signs of wear and corrosion on the body and lid. 

Pressure canners, used for low-acid foods (vegetables), some tomato products, and meats, require deeper inspection. Pressure canners have a weighted gauge, a dial gauge, or both for indicating and regulating the pressure. The lid gaskets along with the gauges, petcocks, vents, and safety valves should be inspected. Penn State Extension has a helpful inspection check list as a guide.  Pressure canners with dial gauges must be tested annually for accuracy. Gauges that read high cause under-processing and may result in unsafe food. Clostridium botulinum bacteria are the main reason why low-acid foods must be pressure canned to be safe. Home-canned foods are responsible for over 90% of all cases of food-borne botulism. Low readings cause over-processing. Your local extension office personal may have the equipment to test the accuracy of most dial-gauge canner brands such as Presto, National, Maid of Honor, and Magic Seal. National Presto Industries will also test gauges for free. (See University Minnesota Extension for more information.) All-American brand gauges cannot be tested at extension offices; contact the Wisconsin Aluminum Foundry, 920-682-8627 for help.* Burpee pressure canners can no longer be tested; the company is out of business and parts are no longer available for the Aristocrat; it is probably best to set these vintage canners aside as an heirloom or collectable. Dial gauges that are off more than two pounds of pressure should be sent to the manufacturer for repair or replacement. To learn more about canner gauge testing, watch Maintaining Your Canning Equipment by K-State Research and Extension. Iowa and Minnesota residents may call AnswerLine to find out where to go for testing.  Weighted or rocker-type pressure regulators do not require annual testing; the weights are not adjustable and usually maintain accuracy. 

It is also important to inventory canning jars, lids, and ring bands. Mason-type jars specifically designed to withstand the heat necessary for home canning should be used. Check jars for rim nicks, blemishes and hairline scratches or cracks.  Jars exhibiting any issues should not be used for canning; instead they can be recycled for dry food or pantry storage. Jar size plays a role in process time so the jar size called for in the recipe must be used. Two-piece lids are needed to seal the jars; the flat lid can only be used once while the ring band may be re-used unless it is rusty or dented.  For best results, use recently manufactured flat lids from reputable manufacturers.

Other essential canning equipment to locate and check for safe use include funnel(s) for large- and narrow-mouth jars, jar lifter, racks, food mill, jelly bags, bubble popper tool, and headspace gauge.  Make sure that everyday kitchen items like tongs, ladles, strainers, colanders, cheese cloth, long handled spoons, and a slotted spoon are conveniently located.  Also be aware that some canners cannot be used on glass stovetops and that a newly acquired electric range (since 2019) with coil burners may not allow consistent heat due UL858(60A) standards.[1].  A portable burner may be a suitable option provided NCHFP guidelines are considered.

Canning your own garden produce or farmer’s market produce can be rewarding and a great way to save your food for later use. Be ready by planning and preparing now.

*Newer models of the All American canner have both regulator weights (weighted gauge and dial gauge). [Picture 1.]  If the weight begins to rock at the desired pressure and the gauge is off by more than 2 psi the company recommends replacing the gauge. The gauge is now used as a reference to know when the unit is at 0 psi and can safely be removed.  The petcock on older All American Canners [Picture 2] can be replaced with a weighted gauge. Contact Wisconsin Aluminum Foundry for more information.  Photos used with permission from K-State Research and Extension.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

More Posts

Freezing Yeast Dough

The frozen yeast dough products available at the supermarket are a nice convenience.  But, did you know that yeast dough can also be prepared at home and frozen to nearly duplicate the convenience of a ready-to-use product?

Fleishmann’s Yeast introduced home bakers to freezing yeast dough in their 1972 publication, Fleishmann’s Bake-it-easy Yeast Book.  Included in the book were the very first recipes for frozen dough one could make at home, freeze, and bake later.  The recipes introduced were specifically developed for freezing and to this day, they remain the standards for freezing yeast doughs.

It should be noted that freezing dough at home may not yield the same results as commercially frozen dough but is still a means to delicious, freshly baked bread when time is short. Frozen dough manufacturers have access to superior dough stabilizers and freezing equipment that freeze the dough very quickly, allowing doughs to freeze with minimal damage to the yeast and dough structure. Dough freezes slower in home freezers increasing the risk of damage to the yeast and dough structure.

Tips for Preparing Yeast Dough for the Freezer  

  • According to Fleishmann’s Yeast, only yeast dough recipes specially developed for freezing should be used for best results. Freezer dough recipes usually call for more yeast and sugar and less salt and fat. The most success is achieved with roll or pizza dough.  The method of preparation is not limited; dough can be made by hand mixing and kneading, mixer, food processor, or bread machine.
  • Original freezer-dough recipes used all-purpose flour.  Today, it is recommended to replace all-purpose flour with bread flour as it helps to maintain better structure.   
  • Active dry yeast should be used instead of fast-acting yeast. Fast-acting yeast is not ideal for recipes that require a long rising time. 
  • To compensate for the yeast that will inevitably die in the freezing process, King Arthur Baking suggests increasing the yeast by ¼ to ½ teaspoon per 3 cups (360 grams) of flour.
  • Dough may be frozen at two junctures: 1) after kneading and before the first rise (proofing) OR 2) after the first or second rise.  American Test Kitchen tested both junctures and found “freezing the dough between the first and second proofs was the best strategy. The first proof ensured that enough yeast had fermented for the dough to develop complex flavors and for some gluten development for better baked size. The remaining viable yeast cells then finished the job as the dough thawed and proofed for the second time.” 
  • Form the dough into balls for rolls or flatten the dough into a disk about 1 inch thick for pizza crust or dough to be shaped later. French bread, loaves of bread, braids, and cinnamon rolls can be shaped prior to freezing; loaves should be frozen in greased loaf pans and cinnamon roll slices placed on their sides on a lined baking sheet. Tightly wrap the dough with plastic wrap.
  • Flash freeze the dough in the freezer for 1-2 hours.
  • When the dough pieces have formed a hard shell around the outside, transfer to a zipper freezer bag or air-tight freezer container.  Return the dough to the freezer.  Freeze up to 1 month.
  • When ready to use, remove needed dough balls, loaves, rolls, or disks from the freezer and allow to thaw covered in the refrigerator, a warm location, or combination until doubled in size.
  • Previously formed dough can be thawed in a greased baking pan until double. Disks should be allowed to thaw and then rolled or shaped (pizza crust or any shape or specialty desired), placed in a greased baking dish, and allowed to rise until doubled. (Rolled dough for pizza crust does not need time to double unless desired.)  When dough has reached the desired size, bake as directed.
  • Do not over proof.  Since the yeast and bread structure have been compromised during freezing, over proofing may cause the dough to collapse on itself.
  • Thawing and rising times vary according to the temperature of the dough, the size of the dough pieces, and where thawing takes place.  Use these times as a guideline for thawing [1]:
    Refrigerator: 8-16 hours
    Countertop:  4-9 hours
    Warm location:  2-4 hours
    Dough balls for dinner rolls take about 1½ -2 hours to thaw and double before baking in a warm location.  Loaves of bread may take 4-6 hours at room temperature.
  • Dough should be tightly covered during flash freezing, thawing, and rising prior to baking to prevent the dough from developing a dry crust.

Recipes for freezer dough can be found on the Fleishmann’s website. Some examples include: pizza dough, bread dough, and dinner rolls.   If one is so lucky to have a copy of Fleishmann’s Bake-it-easy Yeast Book, 1972, a variety of yeast doughs developed for freezing can be found therein.

Fresh-baked bread is always more delicious than reheated. If you plan ahead, you can freeze yeast dough to save time provided you remember to pull it from the freezer in time—that’s the hardest part! 


References: 

Almost Pop ‘n’ Serve Dough, Cook’s Illustrated
(https://www.cooksillustrated.com/how_tos/6065-almost-pop-n-serve-dough

Fleishmann’s Bake-it-easy Yeast Book, 4/1972.

Fleishmann’s Yeast Best-Ever Breads, Specialty Brands, 1993

Can Dough Be Stored in the Refrigerator or Freezer?, Fleishmann’s Yeast, (https://www.fleischmannsyeast.com/frequently-asked-questions/ )

Can I Freeze My Yeast Dough?, King Arthur Baking Company®, 2021, (https://www.kingarthurbaking.com/blog/2021/07/06/freeze-yeast-dough-make-ahead-bread)

Yeast Dough, Purdue University, 2002 (http://www.four-h.purdue.edu/foods/yeast%20dough.htm)

Kneaded Notes:  Holiday Baking Guide, Red Star® Yeast, (https://redstaryeast.com/blog/holiday-baking-guide/)

How to Freeze Yeast Dough, Taste of Home, 2020, (https://www.tasteofhome.com/article/freezing-yeast-dough/)

Reference to any commercial product, process, or service, or the use of any trade, firm, or corporate name is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement, recommendation, or certification of any kind. Persons using such products assume responsibility for their use and should make their own assessment of the information and whether it is suitable for their intended use in accordance with current directions of the manufacturer.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

More Posts

Are Two-Piece Lids Really Necessary?

The past two years have been very frustrating for home canners as canners searched and scrambled for two-piece lids. Out of frustration and desperation to get garden produce into jars, canners turned to using lids from uncertain suppliers, one-piece lids, reusable lids, and sadly reusing lids from previously canned foods (definitely a NO! NO!).  It is hopeful that the canning lid supply and demand problem will be less in 2022, but it is not clear that the problem has gone away as the shelves of many reliable outlets remain void of lids at this time.

Despite the supply and demand issue with two-piece lids, the USDA and the National Center for Home Food Preservation (NCHFP) continue to recommend and support the two-piece lid system even though one-piece and reusable lids are available.  Why the recommendation? 

The two-piece lid system (flats and screw bands) is still the best option for home canners. They are easy to use, known to seal reliably, and easy to tell if the jars sealed. When researched guidelines are followed by users, the two-piece lid system safely replaces the vacuum system used for commercially canned foods with a self-sealing system consisting of a flat metal lid held in place by a metal screw band. A trough around the outer edge of the flat lid holds a rubber-like, plastisol sealing compound which acts like a gasket; heat causes the compound to flow slightly over the rim of the jar.  During processing, the gasket allows air to escape from the jar and then forms an airtight seal as the jar cools. 

To ensure safe home canned foods, follow these important tips for two-piece lids:

  • Use new lids (flats) each time; after the first use the lid will no longer seal effectively. With careful handling, canning jars and screw bands may be reused many times. 
  • Purchase your lids (flats) from reputable suppliers.
  • Buy only the quantity of lids (flats) that will be used in a year’s time—please don’t hoard.
  • Follow the manufacturer’s directions for preparing lids (flats) to make sure to get a good seal.
  • Carefully observe headspace requirements for the product.
  • Removed air bubbles inside the jar with a plastic or silicone spatula.
  • Make sure the rim of the jar is clean before placing the flat lid on the jar.
  • Tighten the screw band as specified by the manufacturer.  Usually this is fingertip tight, which means the first full resistance is felt using just your fingertips.
  • Check all metal lids carefully. Don’t use old (more than 5 years old), dented, deformed, or defective lids.
  • Do not re-use lids from previously canned foods.

One-piece, reusable, and previous used lids are not approved for home canning by the USDA as they may allow air to be trapped within the sealed jar permitting bacteria to thrive and spoilage to occur which can lead to illness and even death.   While one-piece lids are available for home canning, they were made for use in industry where very strict time and temperature controls are in place.  Because they do not allow air to escape properly in home canning, consumers have reported jar breakage and lids buckling.

Reusable canning lids have been around for decades [1]. Research conducted through the National Center for Home Food Preservation on the reusable lids revealed that the three types of reusable lids they tested had an acceptable seal and removed the necessary amount of air. However, despite these finding, it was still recommended that the traditional two-piece metal lid system be used to “ensure the highest confidence in sealing.” [1] While there is no data to indicate that these lids will not perform satisfactorily if the manufacturer’s instructions are followed explicitly, the USDA and NCHFP cannot recommend their use due to a lack of researched-based information about their performance.

Lastly, recommendations and recipes from the USDA and NCHFP are currently based on the two-piece metal lid system.  The recommendation does not come lightly; it is backed by a body of research documenting how well they work consistently for safe home canning.

Why take a chance?  TWO-PIECE LIDS REALLY ARE NECESSARY

________________________________________

Sources: 

1G. Sivanandam. Evaluation and Comparison of the Sealing Performance of Three Major Types of Jar Lids Available for Home Canning. Thesis Project – University of Georgia. https://tinyurl.com/pj7ywjat

National Center for Home Food Preservation (NCHFP), Recommended Jars and Lids, https://nchfp.uga.edu/how/general/recomm_jars_lids.html

North Central Food Safety Extension Network, North Dakota State University, Put a Lid on It, Best Practices for Using Closures for Home-based Canning, https://www.ncrfsma.org/files/page/files/fn2028_put_a_lid_on_it_fillable_information.pdf

University of Missouri Extension, GH1452, Steps for Successful Home Canning, https://extension.missouri.edu/publications/gh1452

University of Wisconsin-Madison Extension, Put a lid on It, Best Practices for Using Closures for Home-Based Canning, https://fyi.extension.wisc.edu/safefood/files/2021/04/Closures_2021.pdf

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

More Posts

Eatin’ the GREEN in March and Beyond

St. Patrick’s Day is coming and green is the theme. Green is also the color of March and a good time to “go green” by adding more GREEN fruits and vegetables to our daily diet and reap the benefits of better health by eating GREEN —fresh green foods, that is!

Jam-packed with vitamins, minerals, and healthy phytochemicals, green fruits and vegetables are some of the healthiest produce nature has given us. Here’s why.

Green fruits and vegetables are:
– Nutritional power house foods, especially dark green leafy vegetables,
– Loaded with Vitamins—A (as Beta Carotene), B6, C, E and K*,
– Loaded with minerals—calcium, folate, iron, magnesium, manganese and potassium,
– Contain antioxidants to fight free radicals and reduce cancer risk,
– Contain health-promoting phytochemicals (from the green color pigment chlorophyll) such as lutein for eye health and reducing age-related macular degeneration (AMD),
– Typically low in calories and high in fiber – dark green leafy vegetables top out at only 10 to 25 calories per half-cup serving, and
– Easily incorporated into diet raw or incorporated into soups, stews, salads, stir fries, casseroles, and so much more.

There are plenty of green fruits and vegetables to choose from. Some of the best nutrient-packing greens to incorporate into your diet to feel your ‘green’ in a good way include:

Kale
Spinach
Avocado
Green Peppers
Asparagus
Green Beans
Peas
Broccoli
Leafy green lettuce
Collard greens, Swiss Chard
Bok Choy
Green grapes
Kiwi
Green apples
Honeydew melon

Fun tips to get green foods into your diet:

  • Add bright green vegetables to a party tray.
  • Add a green salad as a side dish to lunch or dinner using lots of greens, green peppers, green onions, etc.
  • Make the color pop in broccoli and green peas by blanching them briefly in boiling water, then put them into ice water to stop the cooking process. This enhances the green color to make those vegetables more appetizing.
  • Include kiwi fruit, green grapes and/or honeydew melon in your fruit salad.
  • Add avocado slices to toast, salads and sandwiches. To maintain the green color, eat avocados immediately or sprinkle them with lemon or lime juice. 2 tablespoons of avocado have about 5 grams of fat which is mostly heart-healthy Omega-3 monounsaturated fat.
  • Enjoy your favorite veggie dip with broccoli florets, pea pods, and celery or a favorite fruit dip with green apple slices.
  • Make a vegetable pizza with green peppers, asparagus, and/or spinach.
  • Serve thinly sliced green onions over rice, pasta, broiled or baked fish or soups.
  • Add sautéed spinach and kale to egg dishes or fresh spinach and kale to smoothies.
  • Stir-fry with bok choy, collard greens, or Swiss chard.
  • Roast broccoli and/or asparagus with other veggies.

Additional green ideas include spinach noodles, green vegetable soufflés and omelets; parsley garnish; pesto; cream of broccoli, celery, or spinach soup; finely diced spinach, kale, or green onions in chicken noodle, rice or orzo soups; or glazed kiwi over cake. For recipes and other tips, visit UNL Extension.

March is a good time to start the “go green foods” trend and enjoy the many health benefits from eating something GREEN!

*Limit intake of greens containing Vitamin K if you are taking blood thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin®). Eating too many foods rich in Vitamin K reduces warfarin’s effectiveness and may cause more clotting in the body.  [1]

Sources:
Go for the GREEN on St. Patrick’s Day, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, UNL Food
1Warfarin Diet:  What Foods Should I Avoid?, Mayo Clinic, 2021
Eat Green for a Healthy St Patrick’s Day and Beyond, Utah State University Extension, 2016

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

More Posts

Let’s Go Maple Syruping!

When you think of Iowa, maple syrup probably isn’t the first thing to come to mind. However, maple syrup is one of the state’s oldest agricultural crops dating back to pioneer times.  Native Americans were the first to tap Iowa’s maple trees followed by early pioneers who also tapped maple trees for their annual supply of sweetener. 

Today, Iowa has a small number of commercial producers mostly located in the northeastern part of the state and several small commercial or home-use only producers scattered across the state. According to the USDA 2017 Agricultural Census, Iowa reported 53 farms with 13,808 taps.[1] Producers use a variety of methods to collect and boil sap into syrup.  However, the methods are much the same today as used by our ancestors.  Small holes are drilled into the tree trunks (taps), sap drips into buckets or tubes below, and evaporators boil the clear sap into delicious maple syrup.  The color of maple syrup varies depending upon when it was tapped.  Late winter tapings yield a light brown syrup with color deepening as spring advances.  Color is not an indicator of quality; maple syrup is graded by color with color affecting flavor.  Grade A syrup is a light amber color, while Grade B is darker and thicker. Grade A is mild in flavor with Grade B syrups having a deeper, more robust maple flavor. 

On the average, it takes 40 gallons of maple sap to make 1 gallon of pure maple syrup.  A tree will produce 10-20 gallons of sap per tap on the average.  A tree may have more than one tap depending upon its size/circumference.

While maple syrup is a sweetener, the nutritional benefits of maple syrup are numerous.  One tablespoon of maple syrup contains 50 calories along with the following vitamins and minerals:

  • 20 milligrams of calcium
  • 2 milligrams of phosphorous
  • 0.2 milligrams of iron
  • 2 milligrams of sodium
  • 5 milligrams of potassium [2]

Maple syrup can be used as an alternative to sugar in cooking and baking in a 1:1 ratio. When used in baking, decrease the liquid by 3 to 4 tablespoons per 1 cup substitution.  If no liquid is called for in the recipe, add about 1 tablespoon of additional flour for every ¼ cup of maple syrup.  [3]

Iowa’s maple syrup season generally begins in late February or early March and runs 4 to 6 as six weeks. Warm daytime temperatures and cold nights are needed for the sap to flow; the season ends when the trees begin to bud. If you are looking for some early-spring family fun, a number of groups have planned events and demonstrations across the state to allow nature lovers of all ages to take part in this unique agricultural activity. Below is a listing of a few.  Registration and fees may be required and pancakes and maple syrup might be included with some events.

Botna Bend Park, Hancock, March 5, 2022

Hartman Reserve Nature Center, Cedar Falls, March 11-13, 2022

Mahaska County Environmental Learning Center, Oskaloosa, March 8, 2022

Indian Creek Nature Center, Cedar Rapids, March 26-27, 2022

Sharon Bluffs State Park, Centerville, February 24, 2022

Events are also planned in Minnesota.  For a complete listing, check out the Minnesota DNR website.

Resources:

1 United States Department of Agriculature, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Iowa, Table 40. Woodland Crops Sales: 2017 and 2012.

2 Neff, Michelle, Maple Syrup Nutritional Facts, Michigan State University, MSU Extension

3 Ameden, Kye, Baking with Liquid Sweeteners, King Arthur Baking, 2017

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

More Posts

Getting to Know the National Center for Home Food Preservation

When AnswerLine clients have questions about food preservation, reference is often made to the National Center for Home Food Preservation (NCHFP).  What is the National Center for Home Food Preservation?  What relationship does it have with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) when it comes to food preservation?

National Center for Home Food Preservation Banner used with permission from NCHFP.

The National Center for Home Food Preservation (Centro Nacional para la Conservación Doméstica de Alimentos) is a publicly-funded center for research and education for home food preservation. The center is located in Athens, Georgia at the University of Georgia® and hosted by the College of Family and Consumer Sciences. The NCHFP is your source for current research-based recommendations for most methods of home food preservation.  The mission of NCHFP is to conduct and coordinate research to further develop knowledge in the field of food preservation and to share science-based recipes, techniques, and guidelines with educators and end-users to insure that foods preserved in the home are done so safely.

The Center was established in 2000 with funding from the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture (NIFA-USDA) to address food safety concerns for those who practice and teach home food preservation and processing methods. The Cooperative Extension System (CES) and USDA have long been recognized as credible sources for science-based recommendations. For more background on the USDA work in food preservation and the founding of the NCHFP, see the webinar, Welcome to the National Center for Home Food Preservation.

Dr. Elizabeth Andress, who was instrumental in founding NCHFP, became the first director in 1999. She served as director until her retirement in December 2021.   During her tenure, the center researched home canning and preservation recipes and methods; published So Easy to Preserve; developed the NCHFP website; wrote current topic blogs; developed preservation curriculum and courses suitable for institutions, workshops or webinars; and revised and updated the USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning (2015).  The NCHFP webinar also discusses additional work done by the center.

NCHFP is now under new leadership.  In November 2021, the University of Georgia announced Dr. Carla Schwan as the new director of the NCHFP along with titles of Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist in food safety and home food preservation. Dr. Schwan recently completed her PhD and postdoctoral research at Kansas State University and began her appointment at NCHFP January 2, 2022. NCHFP has been a strong resource for home food preservation research and guidance and will continue to be there for consumers under Dr Schwan’s leadership.

The resources provided by the NCHFP have become increasingly important in recent years.  Due to consumer desire to have more control over their food and the impact of COVID-19, many consumers have turned to home gardening and food preservation at home.  Both factors have led to demand for science-based information to educate consumers on safe methods to preserve food. 

Every consumer interested in food preservation should faithfully use the resources provided by NCHFP.  If you are not familiar with the NCHFP, spend some time perusing the website or order So Easy to Preserve or USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning (2015).  You’ll discover useful food preservation tips, find answers to food preservation questions, and be inspired to can, freeze, dry, pickle, jam and jelly at home safely!

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

More Posts

AnswerLine

Subscribe to AnswerLine Blog

Enter your email address:

Connect with us!

AnswerLine's Facebook page AnswerLine's Pinterest page
Email: answer@iastate.edu
Phone: (Monday-Friday, 9 am-noon; 1-4 pm)
 1-800-262-3804 (in Iowa)
 1-800-854-1678 (in Minnesota)

Archives

Categories