Cashews, Not Really a Nut

Cashews are not really nuts in the true sense, but rather a drupe seed–a seed from a fruit.  Even though cashews are not technically nuts, we use and enjoy them as such. 

Cashew nut fruits growing on tree
Cashew nut fruits growing on tree

Cashews grow on the cashew tree (genus Anacardium Anacardium) a tropical evergreen tree native to South America. The tree produces a “false fruit” known as the cashew apple. The fruit resembles a small bell pepper being yellow to red in color.  At the base of the fruit is a kidney-bean-shaped hard shell with a single seed inside–the cashew nut.

Cashews are gown in many parts of the world with origin in Brazil.  However, Vietnam is the largest producer of cashew nuts followed by India; cashews are a valuable agricultural commodity for both counties.  The cashew nut industry in these countries (and other producing countries) provide vital year-round employment to millions of people, especially women.  Extracting the nut from its shell is labor intense and requires a skilled workforce of which 90% are women who are paid meager wages. 

Following harvest, the shells are roasted and dried to make extracting the nut easier.  Removing the nut from the shell is the most difficult step in processing.  It is either done by hand or machine, but in either case, it is one shell at a time.  When done by hand, the workers beat the shell with a mallet in just the right way to release the nut unscathed.  If mechanical shelling machines are used, the shells are feed into the machines one at a time to split the shells; however, since the shells vary in size and shape, there is breakage so machines are not a perfect solution.  As a result manual processing is generally favored for nut perfection.  However, Vietnam has been successful at mechanizing the process and, thereby, have increased production rates and decreased the labor force.

Another concern in cracking the shell, is the reddish-brown oil that oozes from the shell composed of various phenolic lipids.  It is an irritant like that found in poison ivy causing skin burns and sores and other health issues if workers come in contact with it.  Following splitting, the nuts require tedious peeling and cleaning before moving along to grading, quality control, fumigation, and packaging.

And what about the cashew apple?  The apple has a sweet flavor but a limited shelf life so it is not a marketable commodity in its fresh state.  However, it is available in local markets and has value as a fresh food, cooked in curries, fermented into vinegar and used to make preserves, chutneys, and jams.  In India, it is fermented and distilled to make an alcoholic drink known as feni.  The apples are also used for medicinal purposes.

Cashews are rich in nutrients, antioxidants, healthy fats, plant protein, and fiber; they may be used interchangeably with other nuts in a variety of culinary applications, including trail mix, stir-fries, granola, nut butter, and nut dairy products.  Like most nuts, cashews may also help improve overall health. They’ve been linked to benefits like weight loss by boosting metabolism, improving blood sugar control, strengthening the immune system, and contributing to heart health.

Cashews are generally a safe addition to most diets.  One should keep in mind that roasted or salted cashews contain added oils or salt. For this reason, it may be best to opt for unsalted, dry roasted instead.  People with tree nut allergies should avoid them as they are classified as tree nuts along with Brazil nuts, pecans, pistachios, walnuts and hazelnuts.  Some people have trouble with bloating; soaking nuts overnight will help with nutrient absorption and digestibility.  When eaten in large quantities, cashews can cause kidney damage due to a relatively high oxalate content.  However, in moderation (true of all nuts), such is not likely.  One serving of cashews is 1 ounce and contains about 18 nuts, 157 calories, and about 9 grams of carbohydrate largely in the form of starch1.

Enjoy cashews with a new appreciation to those who grow, harvest, and process the drupes; it is a laborious farm-to-table process. And maybe after knowing a little about cashews and how they come to us, they don’t seem so expensive after all.

Source:
1The Health Benefits of Nuts. Cleveland Clinic.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

More Posts

16 thoughts on “Cashews, Not Really a Nut

  1. Great explanation. I enjoy them too and tonight decided to look them up to better understand the morphology. It does not seem a stretch to consider them am nuts. They have a shell, are not surrounded by a husk or fleshy outer enclosure such as most seed. They presumably contain the essentials to grow, meaning a germ. The article did not touch on this, that I could see.

  2. Hi Mim, It is possible to grow a cashew tree if you can replicate the correct climate, conditions, a matured unshelled nut (seed). Jump to the propagation segment of this article by University of Florida Extension: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/HS377. Thanks for contacting AnswerLine.

  3. Cashews have always been my favorite “nut”. Admittedly, I had previously read about their true classification and seen pictures of them hanging below the fruit from whence they come. However, I had never seen an explanation about how they are harvested and processed. What an eye-opener. I have a newfound respect for their production and the people who provide us with those wonderful treats! I wish the people who process them were better paid. Certainly the cost to buy them is quite high, so there is some hefty profit going to someone.

  4. Hi Susie, the process was eye-opening for me, too, and as a result, a whole new appreciation for cashews and cashew products. Thank you for reading!

  5. This is interesting, because I am not allergic to nuts but get a burning feeling in my throat when I eat cashews. Wonder if it’s something about this particular kind of plant.

  6. Hi Ellen, it certainly sounds like you may have an allergy or are sensitive to cashews. Itching of the mouth, throat, eyes, skin, or other areas is definitely a symptom.

  7. What an informative article. Cashews have always been my favorite “nut.” One thing I learned is I need to cut back on consumption. I didn’t know they could be toxic in excess.

  8. I was told that the reason we never see a cashew shell is because the shell is poisonous. Like poison ivy or is it really poisonous?

  9. Here is some additional information on cashew shells from the the University of Florida Extension.
    Caution: Homeowners should not attempt shelling and consuming the cashew nut produced by cashew trees grown in the home landscape. The shell contains a reddish-brown, viscous, oily liquid composed of various phenolic lipids. This oil is poisonous and acts as a powerful vesicant, causing extensive blistering of the skin (dermatitis). Removal of the kernel from raw nuts requires special precautions and procedures. The sap from the wood, leaves, and flowers may also cause dermatitis, and the smoke from burning any part of the tree is poisonous.
    https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/HS377

  10. Cashew tree produces a fruit called the cashew apple. The cashew nut is the seed that grows at the bottom of this fruit. Though cashews are commonly considered nuts, they are drupe seeds.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

AnswerLine

Connect with us!

AnswerLine's Facebook page AnswerLine's Pinterest page
Email: answer@iastate.edu
Phone: (Monday-Friday, 9 am-noon; 1-4 pm)
1-800-262-3804 (in Iowa)
1-800-854-1678 (in Minnesota)

Archives

Categories