We had a caller last week requesting a substitute for buttermilk. She was getting ready to bake muffins and because the recipe called for so little buttermilk and she didn’t have any on hand was wondering what she could use in place of it.
We get quite a number of callers asking about substitutions. We have several good resources available with suggestions so please call or e-mail us if you ever have a question about what to substitute for an ingredient you do not have on hand at home.
Today I’m going to focus on buttermilk since that was my most recent question. Nothing can match the pure taste of buttermilk exactly. It adds a tangy flavor and increases the leavening power when interacting with baking soda. “Clabbered” milk is the most widely used substitute for buttermilk. “Clabbered” means soured and thickened. The most common way to clabber milk is to add 1 tablespoon of lemon juice to one cup of milk. The lemon juice acidifies the milk allowing the leavening in the batter to do its job. If you don’t have lemon juice on hand, many people substitute vinegar which accomplishes the same thing. You would use 1 tablespoon of vinegar to one cup of milk.
Some people do not like the hint of lemon that is in products with that substitute used. If that is you, you may want to experiment with cream of tartar or watered-down sour cream or yogurt. When using cream of tartar, whisk 1 and 1/2 to 1 and 3/4 teaspoon into your dry ingredients. If you add the cream of tartar directly to the milk it will clump.
When using watered-down sour cream, use equal parts sour cream and water. If using regular plain, unsweetened yogurt use approximately 1/4 cup liquid to 1 and 3/4 cup yogurt to make two cups. If using Greek yogurt mix one small container with 1 and 1/3 cups skim or 1% milk to make 2 cups of substitute for buttermilk.
If your baked goods recipe does not call for much buttermilk any of these substitutions will work. If you are making something like salad dressing and buttermilk is the main ingredient you will want to make sure you use actual buttermilk. If you do buy buttermilk and only use a small amount of it you can successfully freeze it. After thawing in the refrigerator it may have separated a little bit but just give it a stir and it will be fine to use.
We don’t always get responses after we give out information from our office but in the case of this caller she did let us know that she used a substitute and thought the flavor was not affected but the batter seemed a little thinner which caused the finished product to be a little flatter and that made them more difficult to remove from the pan. She will make a note on the recipe that buttermilk is preferred.
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This is the last week for picking strawberries at the farm I go to. I am always sad to see the season end. The berries are consistently delicious! The ones I buy in the store the rest of the year never measure up. I do make sure I freeze a certain amount to have on hand during the Winter as I enjoy the flavor in smoothies and desserts.
The National Center for Home Food Preservation recommends using a sugar syrup or sugar pack when freezing strawberries. This process works very well and helps preserve the color and texture of the berries. It is however a quality issue, not a safety issue.
Many people prefer not to have the added sugar. This also gives you more options when you are ready to use them later in the year. For my purposes I prefer the dry pack method. It is easy right now to spread my berries out in a single layer on a parchment lined cookie sheet and let them freeze individually overnight then transfer them to my freezer bags/containers. By letting them freeze individually first it is easy to just remove the amount I need without any of them sticking together in a glob.
I will enjoy the fresh strawberries of the season as long as I can and also make sure I freeze some to enjoy later.
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Fisheries has proclaimed 2019 as the International Year of the Salmon. They are working to “protect salmon by bringing countries together to share knowledge, raise public awareness and take action”. I recently returned from a trip to Alaska where I was able to visit a salmon hatchery. It is such an interesting process and I enjoyed learning more about the Pacific salmon. They are a migratory species. Born in fresh water, they migrate to the ocean for their adult lives then return to fresh water to reproduce.
Salmon is an oily fish that provides protein, essential vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends eating two servings of fatty fish per week. Salmon fits perfectly into that recommendation.
There are five main species of Pacific salmon along the west coast of North America:
Chum (KETA): their large size and mild flavor make them great for smoking or salmon patties
Sockeye (Red): considered the premium of all salmon due to its rich flavor and firm red meat
King (Chinook): best choice for the BBQ due to its strong flavor and thicker fillets; Chinook are the largest but least abundant species
Silver (Coho): always a great choice with a milder flavor and price to match
Pink (Humpy): smallest and most abundant species; known for a softer texture and mild flavor; perfect for dips and spreads
To better remember the five species I was taught to use my fingers and thumb: Chum – rhymes with thumb; Sockeye – it’s #1; King – the biggest; Silver – for your ring finger; and Pink – for your pinky. Quite clever!
Spend Smart Eat Smart had a recent blog post on Safe Seafood and Broiled Salmon was their Recipe of the Month for April 2019.
Here are a couple recipes for you to try using canned salmon from the USDA: Salmon Patties and a Salmon Casserole.
I know salmon is plentiful in our grocery stores but I had fun bringing some home in my suitcase to try with new recipes!
Summer is nearly upon us and many of us will be looking for fun things to do with the children in our lives. One thing I love to do with my grandchildren is bake. I recently attended a cookie decorating class in hopes of picking up a few tips about some new techniques or products to use. The cookies we used were homemade (which are always fun to do with children) but if you find you don’t have enough time to do everything, using refrigerated cookie dough works just fine. There is a wide range of cookie cutters available on the market today for most any interest your children would have. If you can’t find exactly what you are looking for, trace a pattern and make your own!
Once your cookies have baked and cooled, frost with your favorite sugar cookie icing. Buttercream and Royal frostings are always popular. Experiment with making different colors of frosting using gel or powdered coloring. Put the prepared frostings in a baggie, cut one corner of the baggie diagonally and let the children use their creative skills to add frosting to the cookies.
The class I attended introduced me to Sprinkle Pop which is one of many brands of sprinkle type toppings available on the market in many different forms. Some of the varieties include sanding sugar which is translucent and quite fine and delicate; crystal sugar is also translucent but has larger, coarser crystals; nonpareils are round; quins come in many different shapes; edible glitter; and dragees which have a hard outer shell. It is important to be a good label reader when purchasing decorations for your cookies to make sure they are all edible. Some decorations will be labeled for use as decoration only and should not be consumed. They should be removed before serving the cookies. The FDA advises to avoid the use of non-edible food decorative products.
AnswerLine will be closed Monday, May 27th, in observance of Memorial Day.
The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has the story of Memorial Day History.
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We recently had friends spend a long weekend with us and they were telling us about a recent mishap at their house. They were entertaining friends for dinner and were preparing a potato dish. They put the potato peelings down the garbage disposer. You may have guessed what happened next – the drain got totally clogged. Typically things like that happen when it is holiday time and we are preparing food for more people than usual. Plumbers are usually not available at a reasonable price at those times as well!
There are foods you should never put down your garbage disposer. Sometimes it happens though that we forget or a helper in the kitchen is not familiar with foods that should not be disposed of in the garbage disposer. Our friends contacted a plumber but decided to try a few things themselves to unclog the drain and they were successful!
Many of us will probably be making potato salad this Summer so I thought it might be a good reminder to all of us to not put potato peelings down the garbage disposer and also to review some ways to try and unclog a drain on your own.
You may want to try the Baking Soda and Vinegar method: Pour 1/2 cup baking soda down the drain. Add 1/2 cup white vinegar and cover the drain if possible. Let set for a few minutes, then pour a kettle of boiling water down the drain to flush it. The combination of baking soda and vinegar can break down a clog and wash it down the drain. DO NOT use this method after any commercial drain opener has been used or is still present in the standing water.
Another method is using Salt and Baking Soda: Pour 1/2 cup salt and 1/2 cup baking soda down the drain. Follow with 6 cups boiling water. Let sit overnight and then flush with water. The hot water should help dissolve the clog and the baking soda and salt serve as an abrasive to break through the clog.
In order to keep your drain running smoothly you may consider pouring a kettle of boiling water down it on a weekly basis to melt fat that may be building up or to put some vinegar and baking soda down the drain to break up fat and keep it smelling fresh.
The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America has deemed May National Asthma and Allergy Awareness Month. In addition, the third week in May is designated Food Allergy Awareness Week. Allergies have become really important and can mean life or death to the nearly 15 million people in the US who are affected by food allergies. The Centers for Disease Control estimate four to six percent of children and four percent of adults are affected by food allergies.
A food allergy occurs when the body’s immune system perceives a certain food as dangerous or harmful. The body reacts by causing symptoms. Those symptoms are an allergic reaction and can range from mild to severe. The foods that cause the allergic reactions are called allergens. There are eight major food allergens: Milk, Eggs, Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Wheat, Soy, Fish, and Crustacean Shellfish. There is currently no cure for food allergies so avoiding the food with the allergen is the most effective way to not suffer a reaction. Food allergies are most common in young children but can appear at any age. Some of the allergies are occasionally outgrown but not always. The most common ones that are occasionally outgrown are milk, egg, wheat and soy. Children with food allergies are two to four times more likely to have asthma or other allergic diseases.
Most food related symptoms occur within two hours of ingesting the food. Sometimes the reaction can happen within minutes. An initial reaction may produce mild symptoms but that does not guarantee all reactions will be similar. The most severe allergic reaction is anaphylaxis. It is life-threatening and can effect breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. Because it can be fatal it must be treated promptly with an injection of epinephrine. You may know people who carry an EpiPen with them because their reactions can be so severe.
If you suspect you or someone you know has a food allergy it is important to have testing done by a board-certified allergist.
Over the years you may have purchased clothing that faded from its brilliant color after cleaning or laundering. The same thing has happened to me. You may have also heard about “home remedies” that were suppose to “set” dyes. I know I have had people recommend to me such things as vinegar and water; salt, alum and water; or a combination of vinegar, salt, alum and water to be added to the wash or rinse cycle to help prevent color loss. Unfortunately none of those methods substantially reduce color loss. Those remedies are basically a waste of time, energy and money. So it was interesting to me when I recently purchased a new top that the store included the two care cards you see pictured. When I asked about them the store clerk helping me said it was because the top was black.
Dyes can bleed in dry cleaning solvent or in water and cause the original color to fade or stain other colors. If excess dye remains on the surface of the fabric it can cause dye loss or transfer in water or solvent both by crocking or rubbing. If you have ever worn a new pair of jeans and sat on something light colored or worn a light colored top and seen blue streaks appear on the lighter color it is because the excess dye has rubbed or crocked off.
If excess dye is the main cause of color bleeding, the dye transfer may stop after a number of washings or cleanings but the color will fade as well. There are some things you might want to consider the next time you are contemplating buying a black or brilliant colored piece of clothing. Be a label reader. If the tag says “wash colors separately”, you could expect dye will bleed in washing. Washing your garments inside out in cold water will help some. There are commercial dye fixatives you might want to try. Retayne is a popular one on the market. Retayne is a liquid cationic dye fixing agent used as a pretreatment on commercially dyed cotton fabrics that tend to bleed easily. Retayne does NOT work in energy efficient front laoding washing machines. Those machines do not supply enough water to properly treat the fabric. Use a top loading washing machine or treat the garment in an old enamel canning kettle or plastic bucket that is not used for food. For the machine or the pot, use enough 140 degree water for the fabric to move around freely. If the hot water that enters your washing machine is not 140 degrees you will want to heat water on top of the stove to add to the machine. Leave the garment in the 140 degree water for 20 minutes, launder in cool water and rinse in cold water. This treatment only needs to be done once. After that continue to launder in cool water and rinse in cold water. Do not wash the garment in hot water. Synthrapol is often used in combination with Retayne. Synthrapol can be used as a pre-wash or an after-wash. As a pre-wash it works best in hot water to wash out excess loose dye molecules that have not been chemically bonded to the fabric. Used as an after-wash it keeps loose particles of dye in suspension so they don’t stain other areas of the fabric.
Rit ColorStay Dye Fixative is another popular product on the market. It is designed to also lock in color and reduce bleeding and fading. The procedure is much the same as with Retayne. Hot water is used again and you treat the garment before the first laundering.
Shout makes a product called Color Catcher Dye-Trapping Sheets. They are used in the wash water and the sheets are designed to lock up loose dyes found in the wash water to help prevent dyes from bleeding onto other clothes and helping preserve the bright vibrant original colors of your garment. If you are using a front loading machine it is recommend you put the Color Catcher in a mesh bag and place it at the back of the washer drum before adding the load of clothes to wash.
If you look at the reviews online or talk to people who have used any of these products you will find that none of them are 100 percent reliable. There are a lot of variables involved. If you decide to use one of the commercial products it is important to follow the directions as stated on the package. The use of vinegar to “set” color is not recommended however.
I have been intrigued with weighted blankets for quite a while. I am certainly interested in anything that would help me get a better night’s sleep without using medication in any form, over-the-counter or prescription. As I began to research weighted blankets I found scientific research was very limited. I did find one study done in 2015 in the Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders that concluded the participants had a calmer night’s sleep with a decrease in movements. The participants also believed the weighted blanket used in the study provided them with a more comfortable, better quality, and more secure sleep. That was enough positive feedback for me to delve into it a little more!
So what are weighted blankets? They are heavy blankets, 15 plus pounds (although some weigh less), filled with poly-pellets that have the texture of plastic pebbles, glass beads that have the texture of sand, or chains. The theory behind them is they provide deep pressure that gives you a feeling of calm or that you are being hugged or swaddled. The weight in the blanket makes it harder for you to move which in turn makes it harder to disturb yourself while sleeping.
Weighted blankets have been popular to treat children with disorders like autism or ADHD and have now become popular to help with sleep issues for many ages. They are not recommended for the very young or the elderly however. They are also not recommended for people who snore or have sleep apnea, fragile skin, circulatory problems, or temperature regulation issues.
If you do decide to invest in a weighted blanket, what weight should you purchase? Most recommendations are to choose one that is 10% of your body weight or 10% of your body weight plus 1 to 3 pounds depending on your age. For young children, 1 pound, for older children and teens, 2 pounds, and for adults up to the 3 pounds above your body weight.
Many weighted blankets come with an outer cover that is machine washable. Those fabrics can range from extra warm to extra soft to cool to the touch. Most weighted blankets themselves are not machine washable so choosing one with a washable cover is an important consideration. Weighted blankets can be pricey so it pays to do your homework and compare those that come with an outer cover included and those that charge an additional fee for the cover.
There are non-profit groups that not only make weighted blankets to give to children with special needs they also include directions to make your own. Two I am familiar with are Sharing the Weight, which one of my co-workers is a part of, and Weighted Comfort for Kids. If you are interested in making a weighted blanket for yourself or a friend, the directions on these sites are easy to follow.