Preserve Pumpkin and Squash Safely

Pumpkins offer far more than a door-stop at Halloween. Fall is the prime time to find and use sugar or pie pumpkins along with some winter squash varieties for cooking, baking, and preserving. The pumpkin puree purchased in a can at the store is actually made from a squash that’s less a “pumpkin” and more of a butternut squash in both flavor and texture.  It turns out, if you truly want the best pumpkin puree, don’t use an actual pumpkin.  The best “pumpkin” flavor comes from firm-fleshed winter squash varieties like Kabocha, Red Kuri, Butternut, New England Cheese Pumpkin, and pie/sugar pumpkin.  Avoid large jack-o-lantern varieties which are bred for size rather than flavor.

However, think safety when preparing or preserving pumpkins or squash. Pumpkins/winter squash are low acid vegetables and require special attention to preparation and processing. Use excellent sanitation in handling the fresh pumpkin/squash flesh.  Do not let cut or cooked pumpkin/squash sit out at room temperature for more than 2 hours during preparation or prior to preserving. 

Freezing Pumpkins and Winter Squash

Freezing is the easiest way to preserve pumpkin and winter squash and yields the best quality product. Select full-colored mature pumpkin/squash with fine texture (not stringy or dry). Simply wash the pumpkin/squash, remove the seeds and cut it into cooking-sized pieces.  Pumpkin/squash can be cooked in boiling water or pressure cooker, steamed, or baked in the oven with or without the rind removed.  Cook, steam or bake the pumpkin/squash until it is soft, remove the pulp from the rind and mash for baking; cubes can also be frozen if desired. Cool the pumpkin/squash as quickly as possible.  Package the puree in freezer containers sized for future use (2 cups of puree equals one can of pumpkin) leaving headspace and freeze. Remember to thaw the pumpkin in the refrigerator when ready to use. 

What if the pumpkin/squash is too hard to get a knife through? Smaller whole pumpkins/squash can be prepared in the oven or pressure cooker with no cutting required. Poke the vegetable with a knife to create steam vents. Bake or cook until tender; remove seeds and flesh, mash or puree. Another option is to use the microwave to soften the vegetable.  Begin by poking some steam holes in the vegetable.  Microwave for a few minutes until there is some give when pushed on.  Cool briefly, cut in half, remove seeds, and microwave, cut side down, until tender.  Lastly, the oven is an option.  Place the vegetable on a baking sheet and roast until there is some give when poked. Remove from the oven, cool briefly, cut in half, scoop out the seeds, and continue baking cut side down until tender.  Once the vegetable is tender, cool briefly to handle safely.  Scrap out the flesh, mash or puree.

Canning Pumpkins and Winter Squash

If you prefer to preserve pumpkin/squash for shelf storage, it must be canned with pressure and only safely canned in cubes. Canning pumpkin butter* or mashed or pureed pumpkin/squash is NOT recommended. To pressure can cubed pumpkin/squash, first wash the pumpkin/squash and remove its seeds. Next, cut the pumpkin/squash into 1-inch wide slices, then peel and cut the flesh into 1-inch cubes. Blanch the cubes in boiling water for 2 minutes. Fill the canning jars with the cubes, and cover them with the hot cooking liquid leaving 1 inch of headspace.   Process at 11 pounds of pressure with a dial-gauge canner.  For altitudes below 2000 feet, process pints for 55 minutes and quarts for 90 minutes.  For a weighted gauge canner, process at 10 pounds of pressure at altitudes below 1000 feet and at 15 pounds of pressure above 1000 feet.  Process pints for 55 minutes and quarts for 90 minutes.

Canned pumpkin/squash can be used for side dishes, casseroles and soups.  It can also be used for pies and baking by pureeing at the time of use; however, it does not work as well for pie as frozen.

Skip the grocery-store can of pumpkin puree and instead make your own. It will be perfect for all your fall baking and cooking needs.

* Pumpkin Preserves.  Gelled preserves rely on the natural acidity present in most fruits for safe food preservation. Most fruits have natural acids so resulting jams or jellies can be safely canned in a boiling water bath process. Pumpkin, however, is a low acid vegetable and cannot be safely canned in the boiling water bath process. A jam or sweetened preserve would have to have enough sugar and/or added acid to be treated safely without concerns about botulism. A certain acidity level is also required to cause the pectin molecule to form a gel structure. At the present time, the USDA nor National Center for Home Food Preservation have any tested recipes to recommend for safely canning pumpkin preserves (jams, jellies, conserves, or pumpkin butter) and storing them at room temperature.  These pumpkin products must be stored in the refrigerator or freezer and treated the same as fresh pumpkin.
Source: National Center for Home Food Preservation. 2015. “Home-Preserving Pumpkins.” https://nchfp.uga.edu/tips/fall/pumpkins.html.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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Preventing Crystals in Grape Jelly, Jam, Syrup, and Juice

After you’ve gone to the trouble of foraging wild grapes or picking domestic grapes, juicing them, straining the juice, and making and processing juice, syrup, or jelly/jam, the last thing you want to find are crunchy bits in the jelly or syrup or a hard crystal formation at the bottom of a jar of juice. 

These crunch bits are crystals, usually of three types.
1) Tartrate Crystals – the naturally occurring components of grape juice
2) Sugar Crystals – improper cooking of the jelly or jam when the sugar is added.
3) Evaporation Crystals – loss of liquid

What are Tartrate Crystals?

Grape juice differs from many other fruit juices in that it contains naturally occurring amounts of both potassium and tartaric acid. At temperatures below 40F, these substances bind together to form crystals of potassium bitartrate better known as tartrate crystals. The crystals are benign or harmless so they pose no food safety risk but they are certainly unwanted encounters in juice, syrup or jellies.   Tartrate crystals can also form in grape jam.  In the wine industry, they are known as wine diamonds.

Preventing Tartrate Crystals

Regardless of the grape variety, color, or how the grapes were acquired, the problem is easy to solve with time and a fine strainer.

After juicing and straining the juice, allow the juice to sit undisturbed in covered containers for 24 – 48 hours in the refrigerator. My personal experience is that 48 hours is better than 24 hours if one has the time as crystals have continued to form in my juices after 24 hours. After the wait, slowly pour the juice through a jelly bag, cheesecloth, or very fine strainer into a clean container.  Be very careful as you reach the bottom as that is where you will find the tartrate crystals; they will appear as a rough, cracked substance on the bottom of the container.  Most of the crystals will be stuck to the container, but some may still be afloat.   

Once the tartrate crystals have been filtered out, the juice is ready to turn into jelly, syrup, or juice without the unwanted tartrate crystals. Recipes for jelly, jam, syrup, and juice can be found at the National Center for Home Food Preservation. The juice can also be frozen to be used later for making jelly.

What are Sugar Crystals?

Sugar is a crystal in its natural state and has an affinity to return to that form.  Even when dissolved in liquid as they are in jams and jellies, sugar molecules like to form into groups or crystals.  All they need is a party starter like an undissolved sugar crystal as a nucleus to draw other molecules of sugar towards it, re-forming crystals. Sugar crystals are not unique to grape sweet spreads. When making a sweet spread product or syrup regardless of fruit, it is important that the sugar is completely dissolved with no traces of crystals.

Preventing Sugar Crystals

Crystals throughout the jelly may be caused by too much sugar in the jelly mixture or cooking the mixture too little, too slowly, or too long. Learn how to prevent them from this Penn State Extension video.  Sweet spreads exhibiting sugar crystals are safe to eat.

Evaporation Crystals

Speckled crystals that form at the top of a sweet spread and scatter downward come when the product has been opened and allowed to stand; these crystals are caused by evaporation of liquid. This is more likely to happen with poorly capped, refrigerated jam or jelly.  White, fluffy mold on the surface of a jelly or jam is a sign of spoilage and should be discarded.

Crystallization due to evaporation can sometimes be reversed by gently reheating. Too much heat will cause the product to break down and not reset. The jar can be placed in hot water or carefully microwaving enough to melt the crystals. If melting is successful, a fresh or clean jar should be used.  Adding a small amount of lemon juice or corn syrup may also fix it.  In all cases, it is a temporary fix and the product usually goes back to crystallizing shortly.  A tight fitting lid is the best prevention. 

With just a little patience and careful preparation, crystals of all types can be prevented in grape products.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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Potentially Deadly Canning Mistakes

Home canning is an excellent way to preserve garden produce and share it with family and friends, but it can be risky—or even deadly—if not done correctly and safely.  The potential culprit is botulism. 

Although it’s a rare occurrence, botulism is a serious illness caused by a bacterium toxin, Clostridium botulinum, that attacks the body’s nerves. It can cause difficulty breathing, muscle paralysis, and even death.  Clostridium botulinum is commonly found in soil, on raw fruits and vegetables, on meat and fish, and many other foods and surfaces. Improperly home-canned, preserved, or fermented foods can provide the right conditions for the bacteria to make the toxin.  One cannot see, smell or taste the toxin, yet if ingested, even a small amount can be deadly. 

To avoid concerns about botulism, steer clear of these canning mistakes [1].

Making Up Your Own Recipe
Use only up-to-date, scientifically tested recipes approved by the USDA and follow directions exactly.  Good sources are The Complete Canning Guide, the National Center for Home Food Preservation, So Easy to Preserve, and land-grant university publications.    Without scientific testing, there is no way to know how long the product needs to be processed to be safe.

Adding Extra Starch, Flour or Other Thickeners
Starches slow the rate of heat penetration into the product and can result in under processing.  Clear Jel® is recommended as a thickener for canned pie fillings. If a product is not as thick as desired going into the jar, it can be thickened at the time of use.

Adding Extra Onions, Chilies, Peppers, or Other Vegetables to Salsas or Sauces
Tested recipes specify the quantity of vegetables allowed to keep the salsa or sauce within the safe pH range.  Most vegetables are low-acid and adding extra vegetables will dilute the acidity and result in an unsafe product.  While it is dangerous to add more vegetables to salsa and sauce recipes, fewer may be used for a milder flavor.  Extra ingredients can be added at the time of use.

Canning by Electric Pressure Cooker, Oven, Open Kettle, Microwave, or Dishwasher
Boiling water bath or pressure are the only approved canning methods. Any other method should be avoided as foods will be under processed and unsafe. Heat is conducted by air in an oven which is less efficient than water or steam. As a result product temperature never exceeds the boiling point; jar breakage is also a possibility. Open-kettle canning, placing hot food in jars and sealing with no further heat treatment, has been considered an unsafe home canning practice since the 1980’s due to insufficient heat to destroy bacteria [2]. Microwaved food reaches 212°F but heating is not uniform; in additon, there is a danger of jar explosion within the microwave oven or as food is being removed [2]. The water temperature of the dishwasher’s cleaning and rinsing cyles is far below that required to kill harmful microorganisms. While electric pressure cookers use pressure for cooking, they do not meet the appliance standards for home pressure canning, even if marketed as safe for pressure canning. Washington State Extension explains all the reasons why electric pressure cookers should not be used for home canning in Canning in Electric Pressure Cookers.

Not Making Altitude Adjustments
The temperature at which water boils is affected by barometric pressure which is reduced with elevation or altitude. When water doesn’t reach the normal boiling temperature, undesired pathogens may survive the canning process. These pathogens could multiply in the canned food and cause sickness.  Processing times and temperatures for recipes in most canning resources are based on canning at an elevation of 1,000 feet above sea level or lower.  When canning at a higher elevation, one must add more pounds of pressure for pressure canning and more processing time for water bath canning.  See charts prepared by South Dakota State University Extension for altitude adjustments.

Not Venting the Pressure Canner
Trapped air inside a pressure canner lowers the temperature obtained for a given pressure and results in under processing.  To be safe, the USDA recommends that all pressure canners be vented 10 minutes before they are pressurized.

To vent a canner, leave the vent pipe (steam vent) uncovered (or manually open the petcock on some older models) after you fill the canner and lock the canner lid in place. Heat the canner on high until the water boils and generates steam that can be seen escaping through the open vent pipe or petcock. When a visible funnel-shape of steam is continuously escaping the canner, set a timer for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes of continuous steam, you can close the petcock or place the counterweight or weighted gauge over the vent pipe to begin pressurizing the canner. [3]

Failure to Acidify Canned Tomatoes
Because the pH of tomatoes is an unknown, the USDA recommends that bottled lemon juice be used to lower the pH of the product to be unquestionably safe.

Rushing the Pressure Canner Cool-Down Time
The natural cool-down of the canner is part of the tested processing time.  Hurrying this process will result in under-processed food and siphoning of liquid from the jars.  It may also cause jar breakage.

Allowing “Hot Pack” Foods to Cool in Jars before Processing
Processing times are based on the food being hot at the beginning of the processing.  Foods not starting hot could be under processed. Further, the rule, “hot foods hot and cold foods cold” applies; when foods are held between 40 and 140°F, bacteria can grow rapidly.

Processing Low-Acid Foods in a Water Bath
Canning low-acid foods requires special care. This includes red meats, fish, poultry and all vegetables (except for acidified tomatoes). Low-acid foods can support the production of the deadly botulism toxin if these foods are not processed properly in a pressure canner. A pressure canner heats food to high temperatures (240-250 degrees F or higher) and destroys the spores that produce the botulism toxin. A boiling water bath canner, which can be used for canning pickles or fruit, heats food to boiling temperature (212 F), which is not high enough to ensure safety for canning vegetables and other low-acid foods.[4]

Home canning is perfectly safe but needs to be done correctly.  If you are new to canning (or need a refresher), check out Safe Home Canning Basics, by Minnesota University Extension to learn about preventing botulism and other key issues to be aware of when preserving food by home canning.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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Canned Tomatoes – Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Tomatoes are the most popular food for canning at home.  They are versatile, abundant, and easy to can. There is no doubt that tomato canning season is here as the number of “tomato canning” questions rise—floating, separation, loss of liquid, air bubbles.  Do any of these problems affect the safety?   AnswerLine is here to answer these questions.  

Float

Floating tomatoes (tomatoes or tomato pieces at the top of the jar, liquid at the bottom) may be a visual disappointment but does not affect the safety of the product. Floating is more likely to happen with whole or quartered tomatoes and with a raw pack.  The floating is caused by the natural air and water in the tomatoes which releases during processing. Raw food has a lot of air in it. The volume of food put in a jar before processing might actually only be ¾ food and ¼ air trapped inside the food. During processing, this air will escape from the food and rise to the top of the jar. Float can be minimized by choosing fresh, firm tomatoes, reducing the amount of liquid in the jar (replacing with product), packing the jar as firmly as possible without crushing the tomatoes, removing air bubbles, and using a regular mouth jar. Sometimes turning the jars upside down after they have cooled for 24 hours and letting them rest for a period of time will bring the liquid and solids back together.  Canning crushed tomatoes and/or using a hot pack often eliminates the problem. 

Separation

Sometimes crushed or puréed (juice) tomatoes will separate in the jar into tomato solids and liquid. Separation is another visually disappointing issue that does not affect safety. When tomatoes are cut or crushed before heating, exposure to the air activates a natural enzyme, Pectose (Pectinesterarse), found in high concentrations in tomatoes. The enzyme is activated when tomatoes are cut. This enzyme breaks down pectin which causes the liquids and solids to separate.  Heating tomatoes immediately after they are cut or crushed to 180F (82C) inactivates this enzyme.  This is the reason that many tested recipes direct one to cut small quantities of tomatoes and heat them in batches.  Gently shaking the jars after the product has cooled for 24 hrs may bring the solids and liquid back together.

Loss of Liquid

Loss of liquid does not cause food to spoil, though the food above the liquid may darken. If, however, the loss is excessive (for example, if at least half of the liquid is lost), refrigerate the jar(s) and use within 2 to 3 days.[1]  And jars with milder liquid loss should be used sooner rather than later so place them at the front of the shelf so they get used first.  Penn State Extension advises on the three likely causes of liquid loss or siphoning from the jar during processing of tomatoes or other fruits and vegetables—raw pack, rapid fluctuation of temperature in the canner, and removing the jars too quickly after processing. In addition to the causes noted, improper headspace and loose bands are other sources of liquid loss.  Food expands during processing and if a jar is overfilled there is insufficient room for the expansion.  When this happens, water will push out to make room for expansion. If canning ring bands are too loose, liquid will escape and may also cause seal failure. And like floating and separation, removing air bubbles from the jar prior to lidding helps to lessen liquid loss.

Air Bubbles

Removing of air also known as de-bubbling prior to processing is an important step in canning. Air trapped in jars can interfere with the jar’s ability to drive out the extra air in the top causing too much headspace, floating, loss of liquid, and a poor or no seal. Additionally, too much air space results in canned product above the canning liquid which can lead to discoloration and the development of off-flavors. Ball and Norpro make a bubble remover and headspace tool designed for air removal but a plastic or silicone knife or spatula handle will do the same; any tool used should be heat resistant to handle the heat of a hot pack.  Do not use anything metal to remove air as it may cause hairline cracks in the jar.  Simply run a bubble popper around the edges of the jar, gently shifting the food, so that trapped air is released as much as possible. After the air bubbles have been removed, more liquid may need to be added to the jar to ensure proper head space.

After processing, tiny air bubbles may be noticed in the product.  If these bubbles are inactive, they are benign or harmless.  If the bubbles are actively moving or fizzing up to the top of the jar when opened, the product may be fermenting or contaminated. Products with active air bubbles should not be used and properly discarded.

Despite one’s very best efforts to diminish floating, separation, loss of liquid, or air bubbles, it seems that there is one more non-scientific reason—the phase of the moon! Or that it just happens!  As long as the jar seals and there is at least half of the liquid in the jar, the tomatoes are safe inside the jar.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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The Case for Bottled Lemon Juice in Canning

Many home preservers often wonder why tested and USDA approved canning recipes call for bottled lemon juice. This is especially true when it involves tomatoes and making jams.  Why not fresh squeezed lemon juice?

A USDA RECOMMENDATION

It is a USDA recommendation that bottled lemon juice be used.  And consistent with the recommendation,  reputable canning sources will agree that the best source of lemon juice for canning is commercially bottled lemon juice, as opposed to the juice of a fresh lemon.  The reason for the recommendation is that bottled lemon juice has been uniformly acidified or standardized per FDA regulations: “lemon juice prepared from concentrate must have a titratable acidity content of not less than 4.5 percent, by weight, calculated as anhydrous citrus acid.”  With a guaranteed pH (5 percent2), there is a consistent and known acid level which is essential for the critical safety margin in canning low-acid foods and for making jams gel properly.  

Acid strength is measured on the pH scale. The scale starts with strongest acid at 1 and declines in strength as the number increases to 14, the strongest alkali. The lower its value, the more acid in the food. The neutral point is 7, neither acid nor alkaline.  The amount of acid in canned food is critical to deter the growth of micro-organisms and insure that the food is safe. Foods with a pH less than or equal to 4.6 are labeled “high-acid” foods. Those with a pH greater than 4.6 are “low- acid.” This distinction is very important because only high-acid foods can be processed safely in a boiling water bath. Low-acid foods must always be processed in a pressure canner; if not, they can support the growth of the potentially harmful bacterium, Clostridium botulinum.

The pH of fresh lemon juice is inconsistent due to variety, maturity, weather conditions during growth, soil, fertilizer, rootstock, and storage conditions. There are even variations in acidity within a single variety. Lemons grown in hot climates tend to be less acidic than those grown in cooler climates.  Lemon juice contains both ascorbic and citric acid; since ascorbic acid is destroyed by heat, only citric acid is measured.  The average acid level of fresh lemon juice is about 5 percent, thus the “natural strength” labeling on the lemon juice bottle. 

While acid consistency is the reason for using bottle lemon juice, bottled lemon juice is made from concentrate and preserved with sulfites. For people allergic to sulfites, bottle lemon juice may be a health hazard.  If you or family members have a sulfite sensitivity or allergy, substitutes for bottled lemon juice include bottled lime juice (not Meyer or key lime) or frozen lemon juice (not lemonade) in equal amounts as bottled lemon juice or citric acid in appropriate ratios. Citric acid, sold as a white crystalline powder and not the same as ascorbic acid, is available where canning supplies are sold. It can safely be used to acidify foods if used correctly. Vinegar should not be used to replace bottled lemon juice unless a tested recipe allows it because white vinegar is weaker in acid strength. Equal amounts of bottled lemon juice can be used to replace white vinegar in recipes calling for vinegar, but not the reverse. When vinegar is an acceptable substitute, it will affect the flavor of the food.  Never change the amount of acid, dilute with water, or substitute acid sources unless the recipe specifically allows you to do so.  Aspirin should not be used as a substitute in canning. It cannot be relied on to lower pH or prevent spoilage [3].

ACIDIFYING TOMATOES FOR SAFE CANNING

When canning products with an unknown pH as acid foods, they must be acidified to a pH of below 4.6 with lemon juice or citric acid. Tomatoes, usually considered an acid food, and figs are two examples where the pH values hover near or above 4.6. When acidified with lemon juice or citric acid, they may be processed as acid foods [1][2] making them safe for boiling water bath or atmospheric steam processing. Directions from the National Center for Home Food Preservation [3] for acidification of tomato products to insure safe acidity in whole, crushed, or juiced tomatoes state:  Use 2 tablespoons of bottled lemon juice or 1/2 teaspoon of citric acid per quart of tomatoes. For pints, use 1 tablespoon bottled lemon juice or 1/4 teaspoon citric acid. Acid can be added directly to the jars before filling with product. Sugar may be used to offset the acid taste, if desired. 4 tablespoons of a 5 percent acidity vinegar per quart may be used instead of lemon juice or citric acid. However, vinegar will likely cause undesirable flavor changes. Tomato salsas must also be acidified.[4] To get an idea of how much difference bottle lemon juice makes, see Table 1 in the publication Why Add Lemon Juice to Tomatoes and Salsas Before Canning? by North Dakota State University.

pH MATTERS WITH JAMS

While many factors are involved in getting jams to “set” or gelatinize, pH plays a key role. When fruit is cut and heated with sugar, pectin strands are released from the fruit cells.  The freed pectin strands repel each other because they carry a negative electric charge.  Lemon juice lowers the pH of the jam mixture and neutralizes the negative charges on the strands of pectin allowing them to move together into a network to “set” the jam.  The optimal pH for gelatinization is between 2.8 and 3.5. The best way to achieve this level of acidity is to use commercially bottled lemon juice.  A second reason for using bottled lemon juice in jam recipes is to prevent the growth of bacteria and insure safe canning. With a lower pH, jams can be processed in a boiling water bath for a small amount of time dependent on altitude. 

Whether using bottle lemon juice to acidify tomatoes or getting jam to “set,” bottled lemon juice has a ‘best used by’ date. Keeping the product in the fridge may extend its date but it is best to use a fresh bottle when canning or making jam to insure that the juice is at its best.

The verdict is in.  The best way to insure a safe or desired pH for canning low-acid foods or jam gelatinization is to go with a commercially bottled lemon juice. Bottled juice is controlled and standardized with the acid content assured and more reliable than fresh lemons.  Fresh lemons, however, make excellent lemonade!

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1 Code of Federal Regulations (Title 21, volume 2, revised April 1, 2010)

2 Green, Janet; Hertzberg, Ruth; Vaughan, Beatrice (June 2010). Putting Food By, Fifth Edition (p. 119). Penguin Books Ltd. 

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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Freeze Drying – A New Option for Home Food Preservation

Canning, pickling, freezing, drying, and fermenting are well-known methods of preserving fruits and vegetables for future use.  These processes have been used for generations and made simpler and safer over time with the help of science and innovation.  Freeze drying (lyophilization) is now an option for home food preservation.  HarvestRight, a company in Salt Lake City, Utah, introduced a freeze drying unit for home use in 2018 that has excited the curious of food preservers.  While still an uncommon home appliance, freeze drying is becoming a sought-after means for preserving food at home and the units are showing up at some retailers [1].

Freeze-dried vegetables for soups made from carrots, leek, celeriac, lovage, parsnips and parsley

Freeze drying is not a new process.  The process may date back to the 13th century with the Incas using a simple process to preserve potatoes in the Andes.  The first patent was issued in 1934.  During World War II it was used to safely transport blood serum and penicillin to the battle field.   In the 1950s–1960s, freeze drying began to be viewed as a multi-purpose tool for both pharmaceuticals and food processing and became a major component of space and military rations. Freeze drying has been widely used in the food industry to extend the shelf-life of food while maintain quality. Freeze-dried foods have been available commercially for some time and offer consumers fast meal prep, emergency prepardeness, and portable food. Freeze-dried foods also offer convenience as they can be eaten “as is” (except for raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs), added directly to recipes, or rehydrated and used the same as fresh food.

In a nutshell, freeze drying works by freezing the material, then reducing the pressure and adding heat to allow the frozen water in the material to change directly to a vapor (sublimate).  The process removes 98-99 percent of the moisture in food making it a superior method for preserving food. (An example of a freeze dried food are the berries in commercial cereals that feature real berries.) Freeze dried foods retain 97 percent of their nutrients and natural enzymes and original flavor and color [2] .  Additionally, freeze-dried food is really easy to use; food comes back to its original pre-freeze dried state by just adding water.  Since nearly all water has been removed, freeze-dried food is light making it a favorite for camping and backpacking.  A bag of apples that weighed 10 pounds when fresh, weighs about one pound after being freeze dried [3].

Freeze drying produces high quality foods that are safe as long as they were handled properly prior to freeze drying and once the packaging is opened.  It is important to note that freeze drying does not kill bacteria or other microorganisms; they remain viable, but dormant, despite the extreme conditions of freeze drying.  Any bacteria or microorganism on raw foods prior to freeze drying will reactivate upon rehydration. Therefore, food items that are traditionally cooked before eating must also be cooked before eating as a freeze-dried food.

A freeze dryer is not a fancy food dehydrator. While a freeze drying unit and a dehydrator both remove moisture from food so that microorganisms cannot grow and enzyme action is slowed down, a dehydrator uses low heat and a fan to remove 80-90 percent of the moisture content from food1.   As food is dehydrated, it typically shrinks up and develops a leathery feel and appearance; rehydration is slow and foods do not return to their natural state. Dehydration doesn’t change the fiber or iron content of food. However, dehydration can break down vitamins and minerals during the preservation process and retain less of their nutritional value when compared to freeze-dried food. Dehydration tends to result in the loss of Vitamins A and C, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. [4]. With a lower moisture content, freeze-dried foods offer a shelf life of 25 years [2] compared to 4 months to 1 year for dehydrated foods [5]. Freeze-dried foods rehydrate faster and also retain their original shape, texture, and color. A far greater variety of foods can be freeze dried than can be dehydrated [6].  Both dehydrated and freeze-dried foods store best in airtight containers with an oxygen absorber for long term storage.  Because dehydrated foods rehydrate slowly, they do not readily absorb moisture if exposed to less than optimal conditions; freeze-dried foods, on the other hand, are like a sponge and can go quickly from crisp to soggy when exposed to moisture.

A home freeze drier puts you in control.  Commercially prepared freeze-dried foods are pricey and often have added ingredients.  HarvestRight suggests that home freeze-dried food is one-third the cost of store bought. Freeze drying versatility also allows for the preservation of dairy, meat, produce, and complete meals. 

Display at a local store featuring the medium-sized unit.

Investment in freeze drying equipment is an important consideration, too.  Be prepared for ‘sticker shock’ as the units are expensive and require considerable space in the home.  Equipment cost ranges from four to eight times more than conventional drying equipment and the energy required is almost double that of conventional drying.  Buying a Home Freeze-Dryer: What to Know Before You Go by Utah State University Extension and Let’s Preserve:  Freeze Drying by Penn State Extension explain this in more detail. Besides the initial investment in a freeze drying unit, packaging after drying is another consideration.  When correctly packaged, freeze-dried items can be stored safely for many years.   To increase shelf life, properly sized single-use food grade oxygen absorbers—small packets that attract and retain the oxygen in a package—must be included in whatever type of packaging is chosen.  While glass jars, cans, zip bags, and vacuum sealed bags can be used, opaque Mylar® bags are preferred; they block out air and light during storage, can be resealed once opened and take up less space than glass jars or cans. Mylar® must be used with an oxygen absorber and heat-sealed with an impulse (heat) sealer.

The options for food preservation are many.  Each method brings something different to the table. The flavors and textures are different and how we use the food preserved is different. If long term food storage or portable food storage is the goal, freeze drying is an option to consider.  Imagine rehydrating lasagna on a camping trip!

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1Andress and Harrison. 2014. “So Easy to Preserve” 6th ed. Bulletin 989, Cooperative Extension Service. The University of Georgia, Athens.

Guide to Freeze Drying – The Miracle of Food Preservation, HarvestRight.

Reference to any commercial product, process, or service, or the use of any trade, firm, or corporate name is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement, recommendation, or certification of any kind. Persons using such products assume responsibility for their use and should make their own assessment of the information and whether it is suitable for their intended use in accordance with current directions of the manufacturer.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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Get Fired UP! Tips for Grilling Meat

Nothing says summer quite like the smell and sound of food sizzling on the grill.  Of all the foods that can be prepared on the grill, meat is king with everyone’s goal to cook it to perfection.  Whether it is steak, pork chops, chicken, or fish, knowing how to grill each type of meat is crucial for success. There’s nothing worse than overcooking or undercooking the priciest part of the meal! Meat, chicken, hamburgers, or seafood must be fully cooked to a safe internal temperature before serving to prevent falling ill after eating from food poisoning. 

Grill Safely to Prevent Foodborne Illnesses

Before starting any grilling, care needs to be taken to prevent foodborne illness.  The risk of foodborne illness increases during the summer months because disease-causing bacteria grow faster on raw meat and poultry products in warmer weather. Bacteria also need moisture to flourish and summer weather, often hot and humid, provides the perfect conditions. Follow these four USDA recommendations to keep friends and family safe from foodborne illness:

  • Clean – Wash hands and surfaces often.  Prior to placing food on the grill, wipe the grill surface or clean the grill grates with a stiff brush. If a stiff brush is used, inspect the grill surface to ensure there are no bristles left behind; bristles can cause physical contamination if it sticks to the food.
  • Separate – Don’t cross-contaminate. Keep raw meat and poultry apart from cooked foods.  Place grilled food on a clean plate, not the plate you used to carry the raw meat to the grill.
  • Cook – Use a food thermometer to ensure meat and poultry are cooked to a safe temperature to kill harmful germs. When smoking, keep temperatures inside the smoker at 225oF to 300oF to keep meat at a safe temperature while it cooks [1].
    145oF – whole cuts of beef, pork, lamb, and veal (stand-time of 3 minutes at this temperature)
    145oF – fish
    160oF – hamburgers and other ground beef
    165oF – all poultry
    135oF – all pre-cooked meats, like hot dogs
  • Chill – Refrigerate or freeze left-overs promptly – within two hours of cooking (one hour if above 90oF outside.).
    For more food grilling safety tips, see Food Safety Tips to Grilling Pros and Beginners provided by the USDA .

Tips to Ensure Your MEAT Masterpieces Come Off the Grill Flawlessly

  • Prepare the grill by cleaning the grill grates as previously stated. Oil the grates. A great tip I learned from a program on IPTV is to slice an onion in half, stab one half on the onion with a long fork, dip the onion in oil and rub the grates with the onion. It not only does a great job on getting oil on the grates without flare up, but also seasons the grates a little.
  • Pat meat dry using paper towels to remove any excess moisture that would otherwise steam-cook the meat or inhibit caramelization.
  • Liberally rub the meat with a dry brine or salt and pepper to help keep the meat from drying out.  For steaks and chops, season just before grilling.  Salt pulls moisture to the surface so seasoning when the grill is ready keeps that process from drawing moisture out of the meat and making it wet. It helps to rub the meat with a little bit of olive oil prior to seasoning as it helps to hold the seasoning in place.
  • If possible, establish a two-zone cooking area in the grill.  One area should be hot for searing (cooking briefly over high heat) the meat and the other at a cooler temperature for cooking the meat to the desired doneness after searing.  If this is not possible, turn the heat down on the grill after searing. 
  • Once the meat is on the grill, resist all urges to touch or lift it until it releases from the grill naturally. This will aid in solid grill marks which lend flavor and keep the meat from tearing. Once the meat releases, turn it often to allow even cooking.
  • Use a meat thermometer to gauge when the meat is done using the USDA’s Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart, updated in 2020.  After grilling, hot foods should be kept at a minimum of 140⁰F.
  • After the meat has reached temperature, allow it to rest before slicing or eating so the meat has time to reabsorb its favorable juices and make the meat soft and moist.  Cover with foil and let rest a minimum of 3 minutes before serving. The meat temperature will also rise a small amount while resting.
  • Slice the meat against the grain. Cuts made perpendicular to the grain results in short meat fibers which gives a tender bite of meat.

Meat Grilling Specifics from the Pros

For specifics on grilling the various meat types see the following:
Grilling Pork by the National Pork Board.
Grilling Basics for Beef or Expert Grilling Advice from Beef, It’s What’s For Dinner by the Cattlemen’s Beef Board and National Cattlemen’s Beef Association. Also, How to Grill Steaks Perfectly… For Beginners by Omaha Steaks.  
Poultry Grilling Guide by Weber, B&G Foods, Inc.
How to Grill Fish by the Institute of Culinary Education.

Grilling is more than throwing some meat on a hot grill.  Whether using a gas or charcoal grill, following a few steps when grilling and knowing how to cook and how long to cook the particular food will help assure a successful outcome. The Get Fired Up! grilling tips continues with Grilling Sides–Fruits and Vegetables and Baking on the Grill.

This blog was reviewed by Anirudh Naig, Associate Professor in Hospitality Management & State Extension Specialist for Retail Food Safety at Iowa State University.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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Deciphering Produce Labels and Codes

The produce department at the grocery store is the most shopped department.  Usually located at the front of the store, the brightly colored fruits and vegetables and eye-catching displays welcome shoppers to the store and the opportunity to explore nutritious options.  As shoppers peruse the aisles and refrigerated cases to make selections, one is sure to also find produce labels and stickers on the many selections. What do these stickers and labels tell us?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for assuring that foods sold in the United States are safe, wholesome and properly labeled. This applies to foods produced domestically, as well as foods from foreign countries.  The laws require that labels on food be truthful and not misleading, but the laws don’t regulated definitions for all of the labels that one may see.  Here’s some help with deciphering what each label or sticker means.

FDA Regulated Labels

Country of Origin: Perishable produce must be labeled with the country where it was grown.

USDA Organic: This label indicates that the produce was produced on a certified farm that follows defined organic procedures, such as non-use of synthetic fertilizers or pesticides.

Nutrition Facts Label: If packaging makes a claim about nutrients, the Food and Drug Administration requires a nutrition label. So if the spinach is stamped with “good source of potassium,” it must carry a Nutrition Facts Label [1].

Excellent Source Of/High In: A label bearing this claim must contain at least 20 percent of the daily requirement of that nutrient in a serving.  A Good Source Of label indicates that one serving has 10-19 percent of the daily dose of the named nutrient.

Fresh: Fresh means that the food is in its raw state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form of preservation.  Fresh does not address when the produce was harvested or if the produce was washed in a mild chlorine solution prior to packaging or shipping.

Unregulated Claims

Washed/Triple-Washed/Ready to Eat: Most produce gets a rinse prior to marketing.  However, a washing claim may only mean that the produce has had dirt or grit removed; it is not a guarantee that it is bacteria-free.

Pesticide-Free: This label could mean one of two things:  1) no pesticides were used during growing; or 2) pesticide residue has been washed away. There’s no real way to know unless it bears an organic label.

Hydroponically Grown/Hydroponic: This label generally means that the produce was grown in a greenhouse using a nutrient solution instead of soil.

Non-GMO:  The only possible GMOs to be found in the produce aisles include potatoes, squash/pumpkins, papayas, sweet corn, and soy beans (edamame). If this label were to appear on a package of greens, for example, it would be a misnomer.

Gluten Free:  Fresh fruits and vegetables are naturally gluten free.  This is a true claim but misleading in meaning.

No Preservatives/Free from Artificial Ingredients: Preservatives or artificial ingredients are not usually added to fresh produce making this label misleading on nearly all produce. 

Produce Code Stickers

Besides the labels, there are also stickers found on many fruits and vegetables.  Sometimes labels and stickers are one in the same.  The stickers on produce are for more than scanning the PLU (price look-up) number at the checkout. They may share information about the produce; no matter where you shop, the produce code for any particular fruit and veggie will be the same.  However, it is an imperfect system (no governing or regulating laws) that is voluntary on the part of the producer who could opt out of using the codes or telling the whole truth.  Here’s what those stickers are supposed mean.

Four Digit Code:  Produce with a four digit code beginning with a 3 or 4 means the produce was probably conventionally grown with the possible use of pesticides.  For example, the code for conventionally grown bananas is 4011.

Five Digit Code beginning with “9”:  Fruits and vegetables grown organically have a five digit code starting with a “9”.  An organically grown banana’s PLU would be 94011, for example.

Five Digit Code beginning with “8”:  Genetically modified produce (it has genes from other organisms) stickers also have five digits, but these codes begin with the number “8.” Remember there only five items likely to be found in the produce aisles that have been genetically modified so this is a rarely seen code.

The next time you’re at the grocery store, take a look at the labels on your produce!  Understanding what the labels and codes mean will help you choose what is right for you.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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Vinegar Shelf Life and Safety

Dear AnswerLine, I found several jugs of unused vinegar in my pantry with old “Best By” dates on them.  Can I safely use them for canning, pickling, and other general cooking?  Does vinegar spoil or become less acidic over time? Are they still good for cleaning?  Should old vinegar be disposed of?

Almost Indefinite Shelf Life

Vinegar is a fermented product and has an “almost indefinite” shelf life according to the Vinegar Institute [1].  “Because of its acid nature, vinegar is self-preserving and does not need refrigeration.  White distilled vinegar will remain virtually unchanged over an extended period of time.  And while changes can be observed in other types of vinegars, such as color or the development of a haze or sediment, this is only an aesthetic change.  The product can still be used and enjoyed with confidence.”  The main component of vinegar, acetic acid, is relatively stable under the right conditions.

Because there are few organic compounds to cause random reactions affecting the quality of white distilled vinegar, StillTasty [2] concurs that commercially prepared white distilled vinegar keeps indefinitely.  Like white vinegar, commercially prepared cider, malt, balsamic, rice, wine, and flavored vinegars are also safe indefinitely. However, over time, the appearance and flavor of non-white vinegars may start to change.  Most of these changes are harmless if the vinegar has been stored properly.  Due to the changes that may take place, StillTasty recommends that these non-white vinegars are of best quality if used within 2-3 years of purchase.  The “Best By” date is not a safety date, but rather the manufacturer’s estimate of how long the vinegar will remain at peak quality.  The “Best By” date, by convention, for most manufacturers is two years from the production date. 

To maximize the shelf life of all vinegars, store them in a cool, dark cupboard away from direct heat or sunlight. Vinegar should only be stored in glass, plastic, or non-reactive containers.  It is important that the lid is secured and replaced immediately after use to reduce the amount of oxygen coming in contact with the vinegar.   The acidity of vinegar does not change unless moisture or water gets into the container.

Common and Harmless Changes in Vinegar

Cloudiness – Once opened and exposed to air, harmless “vinegar bacteria” may start to grow. This bacteria causes the vinegar to cloud.  Cloudiness does not affect the quality of the vinegar or its flavor.  Straining cloudy vinegar through a coffee filter may clear it.

Color – Red wine vinegar may become a pale red if sulfites are not added in the manufacturing processes.  Other vinegars can change color by a process known as the Maillard reaction. Residual sugars and amino acids in many fruit vinegars may cause a browning over time similar to the browning of baked food. This reaction is long time (likely years) in coming.  A change in color likely indicates a change in taste as well.

Sediment – Vinegars are usually filtered to make them clear.  Those that are less filtered can form sediment over time as the particles settle.  To deal with sediment, simply strain the vinegar through a coffee filter set inside a fine-mesh strainer before using it.

Mother – Most vinegars are pasteurized unless stated otherwise. When pasteurization is incomplete or the vinegar is re-inoculated with vinegar bacteria from the air after opening, a slimy, amorphous blob or substance will form and float near the bottom. This is a vinegar mother and is just bacteria that feeds on alcoholic liquids.  If one develops, it simply means that there were some sugars or alcohol that weren’t completely fermented in the vinegar process.  Mother can be strained out using a coffee filter.  Some look on a mother as something beneficial to health or to restart their own batch of vinegar.

Canning and Pickling

When considering vinegar for canning and pickling, it is always best to use fresh ingredients as they are very important to the process. If you start with good ingredients, your product will likely be successful.  As previously stated, acetic acid, is relatively stable so any vinegar with 5% acidity is safe to use regardless of age for canning and pickling.  However, non-white vinegars may lose flavor so for that reason, fresh vinegar may be advisable.  Also, if any vinegar is showing any of the harmless changes mentioned, it would be best to not use the vinegar for canning or pickling as such changes may cause unwanted darkening, cloudiness, off flavor, or sediment in the product. Further, should there be any sign of condensation in the container or the container was left open for a period of time, the vinegar could possibly be less than 5% acidic and therefore, should not be used for canning or pickling.

Past Its Prime – No Need to Toss

Contrary to “when in doubt, toss it out,” there is no need to toss out older vinegars.  They are safe to use but may change over time.  If the change is too bothersome for food preparation, vinegar past its prime can still be used for cleaning, weed control, fabric softening, and dying to name a few.  There are a plethora of websites touting the many uses of vinegar.  You may wish to begin with tips from the Vinegar Institute [3].

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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DIY Corned Beef

Corned beef brisket sliced on a cutting board

Corned beef and cabbage has been the traditional St. Patrick’s Day meal for my family and invited friends for many years. We are not of Irish descent, but do enjoy the St Patrick’s Day cuisine.   While St Patrick’s Day is celebrated around the world, corned beef is strictly an Irish-American tradition.  It isn’t the national dish of Ireland nor the food you would eat on St. Patrick’s Day in Dublin.

The early Irish immigrants are credited for giving us corned beef, however.  In their homeland, St. Paddy’s Day was celebrated with boiled bacon.  Being too poor to afford the high price of pork and bacon products, they turned to a cheap cut of beef (brisket) and adapted Eastern European and Jewish brining methods to prepare the meat.  “Corned” has nothing to do with corn; instead it refers to the corn-sized salt crystals (saltpeter) used during the brining process to cure or pickle the meat.  Their new celebration dish was paired with cabbage as it was one of the cheapest vegetables available to them.

Corned beef is essentially beef cured in a salt brine, with some pickling spices for added flavor. It is readily available around St Patrick’s Day in ready-to-cook form and available at most delis year round. It can also be made at home using fresh brisket or any other cut of beef desired.

I decided that this year I would attempt making my own corned beef and in the process learn another food preservation technique first-hand.  After looking at a few recipes, it became apparent that while the technique was nearly the same from recipe to recipe, the seasoning for pickling varied and there was a learning curve regarding curing salts referred to as ‘pink curing salt’ for me. 

Salt (sodium chloride), in general, acts as a preservative and by osmosis action pulls water out of the meat cells as well as any bacteria, killing or preventing it from multiplying by dehydration.  Even though salt is a dehydrator, it also produces a contradictory reaction making brined meat moister and juicier by changing the shape of the cell protein to hold more juice.  Care should be taken in the amount of salt used in the brine.  1Ruhlman and Polcyn recommend a 5-percent brine, 5 ounces of salt per 100 ounces of water. Kosher salt is preferred but it is not absolutely necessary; table or pickling salt can be used.  Since kosher salt has larger crystals, a lesser amount of finer grained salts should be used.  (See this Morton Salt conversion table.)

Pink curing salts are a mixture of sodium chloride (93.75%) and sodium nitrite (6.25%) and serve as a preservative by inhibiting bacterial growth as well as giving cured meats their characteristic reddish color and savory, sharp flavor. Pink curing salt used for brining have such names as InstaCure #1, Prague Powder #1, DQ Cure #1 and Modern Cure #1.  I had to order a small packet online as none was available in my supermarkets.

Pink curing salt should not be confused with Himalayan salt which is also pink; the two salts are only similar in color and sodium chloride content. Curing salts are colored pink so that they are not confused with table or pickling salt as, if used in quantity, they are toxic. The National Center for Home Food Preservation recommends that consumers use 1 ounce of curing salt for every 25 pounds of meat or one level teaspoon of cure for 5 pounds of meat.

There is some controversy over the use of sodium nitrite in curing meats as with frequent consumption of cured meat, some studies have shown a risk of certain types of cancer. (Per University of Minnesota scientists, “based on available evidence to date, nitrite as used in meat and meat products is considered safe because known benefits outweigh potential risks.”2) Because nitrites are also found in vegetables, it is estimated that around 90 percent of the nitrite in our bodies comes from vegetables, while just 10 percent comes from processed meats.2   If curing salt is not used, the brined meat must be cooked immediately after curing and one should expect grey meat; salt used in the brine turns the meat grey.

Regardless of recipe, making corned beef is a three-step process and is easily done. The biggest difference in recipes is the pickling spice mix.

Step 1.  Make a salty curing brine of water, kosher salt, and pickling spices with any combination that appeals in flavor. Pickling spice, mustard seed, allspice berries coriander seeds, peppercorns, juniper berries, bay leaves, cinnamon stick, cloves, and ground ginger are just some of the pickling spice suggested.   The brine for corned beef usually contains a small amount of sugar (white or brown) and pink curing salt. Sugar helps to cut some of the harsher effects of salt and enhances flavor.  The brine is boiled and chilled.  Boiling activates the pickling spices to flavor the brine and insures that the sugar and salt are fully dissolved.

Step 2. Add meat to the chilled brine and marinate in the refrigerator. This is perhaps the most difficult as it involves finding a sealable, non-reactive container big enough for brisket and brine to marinate for 5-10 days and a space large enough in the refrigerator. The container should be plastic, glass, or stainless steel. Other metal containers will react with the brine solution and give the meat a metallic flavor.  A large zip bag on a tray is a good option if the brisket is not too big and both will fit in the refrigerator. The brisket should be turned daily during this time to insure that it is cured evenly and thoroughly.

Step 3.  Rinse and simmer in the same way as a prepared corned beef brisket from the supermarket.  The brisket is rinsed to remove the brine and simmered in water covering the meat with more pickling spices for at least three hours or until tender.  Once the meat is tender, it should be sliced against the grain for serving. Cutting through the muscle fibers shortens them and makes each piece easier to chew. 

Obviously, DIY’ers need to start early.  Since this is my first attempt, I started extra early giving me time to purchase a prepared corned beef should I fail.  I’ve gathered by ingredients, made the brine, and am currently marinating the brisket.  Assuming I am successful, I will slice the cooked brisket/corned beef and freeze it for use on St Paddy’s Day.  I will also defat the cooking liquid and freeze it for cooking the cabbage, potatoes and carrots to accompany the brisket for the once-a-year meal.

With any luck, this DIY adventure will end well with a “Ta-Da! Corned Beef from scratch!” and we will enjoy the flavoring derived from the combination of spices chosen.  Happy St. Patrick’s Day!

To learn more about corning, curing, and salts, I used the following resources:
1Charcuterie: The Craft of Salting, Smoking, and Curing by Michael Ruhlman and Brian Polcyn, 2013. 
Joy of Cooking, by Irma S Rombauer, Marion Rombauer Becker, Ethan Becker, John Becker, and Megan Scott, 2019.
National Center for Home Food Preservation:  Curing and Smoking Meats for Home Food Preservation
2Nitrite in Meat by Richard J Epley, Paul B Addis and Joseph J Warthesen, Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota Agriculture
The Ultimate Guide to Curing Salts from the Smoked Barbecue Source website

Follow up to blog: “Ta Da!!!” The corned beef adventure was a total success! The meat is tasty and succulent with a lovely pink/red color; I would not hesitate to do it again. There will be no need to purchase a prepared corned beef for this family.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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