ISUEO Offers Fermentation and Preserve the Taste of Summer Workshops

Fermentation workshops will soon be offered to Iowa residents. Human Science Food and Health Specialists with Iowa State University Extension and Outreach (ISUEO) gathered at Iowa State University for a pilot fermentation workshop lead by Specialist Jill Weber to train and prepare. 

Workshop participants shred cabbage. Photo by Jill Weber.

The workshop offered a broad overview of fermentation, potential health benefits of fermented foods, and how to conduct a successful workshop.  Using a small-batch method, participants engaged in the making of their own quart jar of sauerkraut to ferment at home. 

Consumer interest in home fermentation has grown in recent years with specific interest in fermenting vegetables and kimchi for the beneficial bacteria fermented products may provide for gut health.  The biggest trend in fermentation is small-batch fermentation—small amounts made regularly using quart (or larger) jars.  Small-batch fermentation goes more quickly and allows one batch to be fermenting while a previous batch is eaten fresh deriving all the benefits of a fresh ferment.  The consumer market has responded with an assortment of fermentation kits designed to make fermentation fun and 1-2-3 easy.  Small-batch fermentation is an excellent workshop activity for learning and engaging.

To help Iowans safely preserve foods, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach also offers Preserve the Taste of Summer 101 food preservation classes or workshops at various locations throughout the state covering topics such as jams and jellies, salsa, pickles, canning, freezing, and dehydrating.  The classes and workshops are helpful for beginning home food preservers as well as experienced preservers who wish to stay current with safe practices. 

Food preservation and fermentation workshops are a great way to learn about the science that goes into preparing a safe product.  However, the classes and workshops go beyond learning about preservation, fermentation, or making salsa or sauerkraut.  Workshops bring people together as they create their own ‘make and take’ product; it is also an opportunity to broaden social and cultural experiences as strangers share in a common adventure that may be new to them. 

To find out when a Preserve the Taste of Summer 101 workshop will be offered, check the Preserve the Taste of Summer webpage for class or workshop offerings.  Fermentation workshops are planned around the state beginning this fall; to indicate interest in attending a fermentation workshop, email Jill Weber ( with your name, phone, and county in which you live.  Jill will help you find a workshop near you.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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Small-Batch Fermentation – AnswerLine Team Gives It a Try

In recent years, consumers have become more interested in home fermentation, especially in making their own sauerkraut and kimchi for the beneficial bacteria it provides for gut health.  As this trend grows, the AnswerLine team receives many questions about the fermenting process. To help answer questions with first-hand experience, the AnswerLine team rolled up their sleeves and spent an evening learning to create the digestive ‘wonder food,’ sauerkraut, from scratch.

The biggest trend in DIY sauerkraut and kimchi is making it in small batches—small amounts made regularly using quart, half-gallon or gallon jars. Kraut or kimchi made in small batches ferments more quickly than in big crocks allowing one batch to be fermenting while another is refrigerated and eaten. The market has responded to consumer demand by providing consumers with a large assortment of fermentation kits, containers, and gadgets to make fermentation easy and fun.  The AnswerLine team randomly chose two different kits with which to experiment—MasonTops® and Ball®—to ferment cabbage into sauerkraut. Both of these kits used quart jars which were prepared in advanced.

Mature, firm heads of cabbage were selected from a team-member’s garden a day prior; cabbage can also be purchased at the supermarket for year-round kraut making.  Both red and green cabbage varieties can be used; the team used a mix of red and green.

We used a mandolin to shred the cabbage. Cabbage can also be shredded using a sharp knife, kraut cutter, or food processor.  However cut, the shreds should be long and thin.  Once the cabbage was shredded, it was weighed, and salt (canning and pickling salt) added per the kit recipe.

The salt was massaged into the cabbage until the cabbage was wilted and juicy. 

The wilted/juiced cabbage was firmly packed into the quart jars allowing the juice to come to the top and completely cover the cabbage. 

The two kits allowed for different amounts of headspace.  What is most important is that there is sufficient headspace for the brine from the cabbage/salt mix to completely cover the top of the cabbage.  After the jars were filled, the jars were weighted and topped with the fermenting lid and screw band supplied with each kit.  Weights can be a food grade glass disk (provided with the MasonTop® kit), stainless steel spring (provided with the Ball® kit), a freezer bag filled with brine* that fits into the jar, a smaller glass jar filled with water or brine, or a full wine bottle that sits on top of the cabbage.  If using a brine bag, glass jar, or wine bottle for weight, whole cabbage leaves (discard when the kraut is done fermenting) should be packed atop the cabbage first.

Rachel Sweeney and Thomas, Marlene Geiger, Beth Marrs, Marcia Steed, and Carol Van Waardhuizzen show the jars of cabbage ready for fermenting.

Each team member left the workshop with two jars to ferment at home.  At home, team members were advised to store their jars in a cooler, darker place in their home, to check it daily to make sure that the cabbage was always covered in brine, and to wait about 2 weeks to test.  Fermentation time is dependent on quantity and temperature.  Kraut fermented at 70º-75ºF will ferment in about 1-2 weeks; at 60º-65ºF, fermentation may take 2-3 weeks.  At temperatures lower than 60ºF, kraut may not ferment and above 75ºF, kraut may become soft or mushy.  The best way to determine when the kraut is ready is by smell and taste.  The cabbage should be translucent but remain crunchy, not soft or slimy. The salty flavor should be diminished and replaced with a bright, tangy flavor of the lactic acid. When the kraut has reached an individual liking, it is time to stop the fermentation by refrigerating and eating it.

Here are the team takeaways from this experience:

  • Small batch kits make it easy to get started, learn about the fermentation process, and build fermentation confidence. Kits are a matter of personal preference.
  • Approximately 2 pounds of cabbage is needed to fill a quart jar.
  • Tightly packing the cabbage into the jars is important to continue releasing the juices necessary to create the anaerobic (without oxygen) environment need for lacto-fermentation to take place while inhibiting spoil-causing bacteria.
  • Work in small batches when packing the cabbage into the jars.  Pack tightly after each handful addition.
  • Important to keep oxygen out yet allow carbon dioxide to bubble out.  Good amount of brine, weight, and lid with an air release enable this. 
  • Keep the cabbage submerged under the brine at all times to prevent oxidation; cabbage will brown at the top if the brine level drops. Add brine during the fermentation time, if needed.
  • Monitor it daily watching for off smell or loss of brine.  Watch for signs of healthy fermentation: cabbage swelling, gas pockets, color changes, bubbles or foam on the surface of the brine, some white sediment in the bottom of the jar. Bubbling activity is normal and a good sign the fermentation process is working.
  • Flavor improves with age but can be customized to individual taste and probiotic level. Longer ferments give a stronger flavor and more probiotics. 

Fermented foods can be a healthy and nutritious addition to your diet and a great way to preserve the harvest as well. Sauerkraut is one of the oldest and easiest of fermented food. Unlike the packaged kraut at the supermarket which may have been pasteurized to kill bacteria, small-batch sauerkraut is lacto-fermented, a fancy term for soaking uncooked cabbage in brine (salt and water), then letting nature ferment the vegetable’s own beneficial bacteria.  This process was perfected by the Germans during the 16th century and still used today.   (While the Germans are best known for their kraut making skills, it is believed that the first sauerkraut was made in China about 2,000 years ago, during the building of the Great Wall.)   

For recipes and additional information or help, check out Small Batch Sauerkraut Tips and Sauerkraut:  Problems and Solutions by Oregon State University Extension. 

Taking the plunge into home fermentation can be an intimidating proposition. Whether you’re a complete beginner or have some experience, small-bath fermentation with cabbage is a good place to start to build your confidence while learning about fermentation.


*Brine – ½ teaspoon salt to ½ cup water

Reference to any commercial product, process, or service, or the use of any trade, firm, or corporate name is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute an endorsement, recommendation, or certification of any kind. Persons using such products assume responsibility for their use and should make their own assessment of the information and whether it is suitable for their intended use in accordance with current directions of the manufacturer.

Marlene Geiger

I am a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with a BS in Home Economics Education and Extension and from Colorado State University with a MS in Textiles and Clothing. I enjoy spending time with family and friends, gardening, quilting, cooking, sewing, and sharing knowledge and experience with others.

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Sourdough Quinoa and Kamut Berry Bread Loaves
Sourdough Bread, Baked and Ready to Eat

sourdough starter picture
Sourdough Starter, Ready to Go!

A couple of weeks ago I was fortunate to attend a Fermentation Workshop in Madison, Wisconsin. Being a sourdough enthusiast, I was thrilled to see so many people interested in the fermentation process. Classes were held in subjects ranging from making sauerkraut and kimchi; brewing beer; making Indian sourdough bread (dosas) and regular sourdough bread (aka San Francisco sourdough); making kefir, yogurt, kombucha and more. I have an interest in all of these topics and will discuss a few in this blog in the coming weeks.

My first fermentation passion started eight and a half years ago as I watched Julia Child’s “Cooking with Master Chefs” one Saturday morning on our local PBS station. Nancy Silverton was the chef of choice in this particular show and she stirred up an amazing sourdough starter using very few ingredients. As soon as the show was over I mixed the ingredients to form my first (and current) starter and eventually gave it a name – Fremont! The picture above, left, shows Fremont after a day or two of feeding. As pictured it is easy to see he is ready and waiting to create a delicious sourdough bread product, be it a baguette of bread, a crisp pizza crust, a dinner roll or quick and easy sourdough pancakes. The picture on the right shows a sourdough kamut berry bread in front and several loaves of sourdough quinoa bread on the cutting board.

To begin a sourdough starter of your own, all you need do is combine: 2 cups flour, 2 cups warm water and 2 tablespoons of dry yeast (not Rapid Rise) and mix well. Cover lightly and allow to  stand in a warm place till light and foamy, at least 8 to 10 hours. Place ½ cup of this mixture in a clean jar and cover. Refrigerate. This is the Basic Sourdough Starter. The remaining ‘sponge’ (about 2 ½ – 2 ¾ cups of the starter) can be used immediately for making into baked products. Then each time baked products are to be made, remove the basic dough starter from the refrigerator. Add 2 cups flour and 2 cups warm water. Repeat as for making starter and sponge, reserving ½ cup for refrigeration and using the remainder for making the product you want. I will share some sourdough recipes in future posts, so be watching.

Liz Meimann

I received both my undergraduate and graduate degrees in Food Science at Iowa State University. I love to quilt, sew, cook, and bake. I spent many years gardening, canning, and preserving food for my family when my children were at home.

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