Time to refinance?

cartoon house

The uncertainty (almost chaos) that we are experiencing due to the current pandemic is hurting the economy, and is a pointed reminder of the need to plan for short- and long-term financial security. Because the Federal Reserve Board has lowered interest rates, however, there is one group who might be able to benefit from the situation: those who have a mortgage at an interest rate higher than they wish.

            How do you know if refinancing is a wise choice for you? Unfortunately, I don’t have a simple answer for that question, but I can give you a few tips on how to evaluate the decision. First, two generalizations. Consumers who are most likely to benefit are those who:

  1. Have the highest interest rates on their current mortgages; and/or
  2. Have many years left to pay on their current mortgages.

Why? Because the main benefit of refinancing is to pay less interest on your mortgage over the long term. The total interest you pay depends on the interest rate and the length of time on the loan, along with (of course) how much you owe.

            If it were free, everyone would benefit from refinancing when interest rates drop, as long as they did not lengthen the remaining term on the mortgage. However, refinancing is not free. Lenders will charge closing costs that will include a loan origination fee, along with appraisal fees and other fees. Note: fees may be lower if you stay with the same lender that holds your current mortgage, but will generally be equivalent to 1-3% of the amount of the loan. If your refinance will cost $2,000, then it is only worthwhile if you will save noticeably more than $2,000 in the long run.

            Imagine that you took out a 25-year mortgage several years ago at 4.25%, with a monthly payment of $560 plus taxes and insurance. The current balance on the loan is $78,000; it will be 16 years and 1 month till it is paid off, and you will pay $29,686 in interest during those 16 years. 

  • What if you could refinance at 3.5%?  If closing costs were $2,000 and you borrowed the money to pay those costs, then you would be borrowing $2,000. You could get a 15-year mortgage with a payment of $572 (plus T&I); the total interest you would pay would be $22,938; that would save you over $5,500 in interest! Of course your payment and savings would be lower if you paid the closing costs in cash.
  • Even better, refinancing at a 3.0% rate (15 years) would lower your payment on an $80,000 loan to $553 (plus T&I), and reduce total interest to $19,419, for a total savings over $10,000.

A caution: Refinancing only makes sense if there is no penalty for pre-paying your existing mortgage. Iowa law prohibits pre-payment penalties, so for Iowa-based loans it’s not an issue, but it is an issue to be aware of in other states. For more information, explore the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau web page on mortgages.

Barb Wollan

Barb Wollan's goal as a Family Finance program specialist with Iowa State University Extension and Outreach is to help people use their money according to THEIR priorities. She provides information and tools, and then encourages folks to focus on what they control: their own decisions about what to do with the money they have.

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