by Hannah Dankbar
State ex rel. Sunset Estate Properties, LLC v. Village of Lodi
Ohio Supreme Court, March 10, 2015
Sunset Properties, L.L.C. and Meadowview Village, Inc. both own property in the village of Lodi where they operate mobile-home parks. Both of the properties are in R-2 zones, which do not allow for mobile-home parks. The mobile-home parks were established before establishing the zone as an R-2 zone, so they are considered legal nonconforming uses under R.C. 713.15.
In 1987 the village of Lodi passed Lodi Zoning Code 1280.05(a), which reads;
Whenever a nonconforming use has been discontinued for a period of six months or more, such discontinuance shall be considered conclusive evidence of an intention to legally abandon the nonconforming use. At the end of the six-month period of abandonment, the nonconforming use shall not be re-established, and any further use shall be in conformity with the provisions of this Zoning Code. In the case of nonconforming mobile homes, their absence or removal from the lot shall constitute discontinuance from the time of absence or removal.
This ordinance is specific towards each individual mobile home; meaning that when a tenant leaves a mobile home and the lot stands vacant for more than six months, Lodi will not reconnect water and electrical service for the new tenant. This results in the mobile home park owners not being able to rent these lots and essentially losing their property. The property owners claim that this ordinance is unconstitutional on its face.
The property owners claim that this ordinance violates the 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution and Section 16 Article 1 of the Ohio Constitution. these clauses provide that no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law. In Akron v Chapman the Ohio Supreme Court held, “Zoning ordinances contemplate the gradual elimination of nonconforming uses within a zoned area, and, where an ordinance accomplishes such a result without depriving a property owner of a vested property right, it is generally held to be constitutional.” The state and local governments have wide reaching powers to regulate land use, but that power is not unlimited.
The last sentence of the ordinance deprives the owner of the ability to use the property that was considered legal before the adoption of this ordinance. Even though the mobile home tenant is the one who makes the decision to leave, the park owner is the one who loses their property right to use their entire property in a way that was legal before the adoption of this ordinance. This deprivation trumps Lodi’s goals of promoting development and protecting property values. All other parts of this ordinance are constitutional, it is only the last part that cannot be applied.
The dissenting opinion argues that there are non-constitutional issues in this case that can be addressed to resolve this case without making constitutional claims. The property owners claimed that the ordinance conflicted with state law. The majority found the ordinance ambiguous as to whether Lodi would classify the individual lots as nonconforming uses. The dissent argued that this issue should have been addressed and decided before the constitutional issue.