Landowner (and predecessors) implicitly dedicate road to township through actions over the course of a century

by Andrea Vaage

Niemi v. Fredlund Township
South Dakota Supreme Court, July 15, 2015

David and Roxie Niemi filed a declaratory judgment action against Fredlund Township, South Dakota seeking a determination that the road traversing their property (their property being known as Section 20) was not a public road. The Niemis claimed the road on their property, locally called “Lewton Road,” was being used by Fredlund Township as a public road. During the hearing in circuit court, several residents and township officials testified that the Township had paid for repairs and the installation of a cattle guard, had paid to “build up” the road from the driveway to Section 20 and a state highway, and that the road was the only access point to a dam and school. Up until an incident in 2011, when Roxie Niemi informed a nearby resident they could not use Lewton Road, no one had been informed the road was not for public use. The evidence indicated that the road had otherwise been used by the public since 1927. The circuit court determined the road was a public road by common law and statutory declaration. The Niemis argued that the circuit court erred.

The Court reviewed the circuit court’s decision for factual error. The standard of proof is the finding of “clear and convincing” evidence that the Niemis or their predecessors implicitly dedicated Lewton Road as a public road. Since no express dedication was made, the Court had to determine whether the dedication was implied through the owner’s conduct and the facts and circumstances associated with the case. The Court found that the previous owners of Section 20 either requested or acquiesced to Township maintenance of the road, and that one owner asked that a cattle guard be built. Roxie Niemi acquiesced to maintenance of the road in both 2007 and 2009. Although Roxie Niemi stated she didn’t want the road to be used for public use during testimony, her actions and conduct showed otherwise. Her testimony could not override her acts and conduct inconsistent with the stated intent.

The evidence also supported the conclusion that the Township accepted the dedication of the road.  It maintained the road since 1927, provided gravel, grading, and construction, and installed a cattle guard and a culvert.  Although the maintenance was not routine or consistent, the evidence established that the Township maintains some other Township roads only when requested by residents.  The fact that the Township declared Lawton Road a “No Maintenance Road” in 2005 further demonstrated that the Township accepted it as a public road.

The Court found that the district court did not err in determining Lewton Road was a public road under common law dedication. The decision was affirmed.

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