By Eric Christianson
South Dakota Supreme Court, August 9, 2017
In Douglas County, South Dakota, Nicholas and Donnelle Hoffman learned that their neighbor, Douglas Leubke, received a permit to build a hog confinement unit from the Douglas County Zoning Administrator. The unit is designed to house up to 2,400 hogs. The permit was made public at a County Commission meeting on September 10, 2015 without any prior public hearings. When the Hoffmans approached the administrator about the issuance of the permit, the administrator explained that the building would house less than 1,000 animal units and therefore did not constitute an animal feeding operation as defined by the ordinance. Under the ordinance, 2,400 hogs is equal to 960 animal units. For that reason, the building is a permitted use not requiring a public hearing.
On March 14, 2016, the Hoffmans applied to the circuit Court for a writ of mandamus to compel the administrator and commission to revoke the permit and put a halt to construction. On June 3, 2016 the Court held a trial and held that the facility was neither a “farm,” “ranch,” nor “orchard” and therefore did not fall under any of the permitted uses of the land. Despite this fact, the Court stated that a writ of mandamus could not be used to undo an act that had already been completed. Both the Hoffmans and the zoning administrator appealed.
The Supreme Court of South Dakota found the circuit Court had erred in holding that the facility was neither a “farm,” “ranch,” nor “orchard.” The ordinance defines farms, ranches and orchards as:
An area of twenty five (25) acres or more which is used for growing usual farm products, vegetables, fruits, trees, and grain, and for the raising thereon of the usual farm poultry and farm animals such as horses, cattle, hogs, and sheep, and including the necessary accessories used for raising, treating, and storing animal products raised on the premises; but excluding an Animal Feeding Operation.
The Hoffmans allege that Leubke does not use the additional land around the facility for growing grain or farm products in addition to feeding hogs; however Leubke does own the full 160-acre quarter section and grows crops on that land.
The Hoffmans also argue that the manure slurry storage pit under the confinement unit violates setbacks established for animal waste facilities. According to the code, such a facility, “shall be no closer than two (2) miles from… the Corsica Lake Recreation Area, and one half (1/2) mile from any… residential dwelling” The facility is less than two miles from the Corsica Lake Recreation Area and less than a half mile from the Hoffman’s residence. The Court interpreted this ordinance to apply only to Animal Feeding Operations not the permitted farm use in this case.
Finally the Hoffmans argued that the hand drawn plan submitted by Leubke to the administrator was insufficiently detailed to allow the administrator to issue the permit. The drawing was not detailed nor drawn to scale. The Court does appear to agree that the administrator had no discretion to approve a permit without all the required information, but finds that this is “ultimately beside the point.”
The Court finds that, “it is clear that the facility was a permitted use under the ordinance as part of a farm or ranch.”