Food for Thought: The Gut-brain Axis

Ogut-brain connectionne of the biggest buzzwords in current media refers to the smallest subject: the human gut microbiome. This microbiome is a collection of microorganisms living in the human intestinal tract; aka the “good gut bugs.” These good gut bugs help our gut produce compounds needed for digestion and absorption of other nutrients. They also provide protection against harmful “bugs” and support our immune system. These good gut bugs have also been shown to promote brain health.

There is communication between the human microbiome and the brain, called the gut-brain axis. This means the health of your gut microbiome may impact the health of your brain—a healthy gut leads to a healthy brain.

The best way to take care of your gut microbiome is to focus on your overall eating pattern.

  • Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Choose fiber-rich foods because increasing fiber can promote abundance of gut bugs.
  • Try fermented foods and foods with pre- and probiotics to improve the variety of your good gut bugs.
  • Prebiotics are plant fibers that promote the growth of healthy bacteria. They are found in many fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, including apples, asparagus, bananas, barley, flaxseed, garlic, jicama, leeks, oats, and onion.
  • Probiotics contain specific strains of healthy bacteria. The most common probiotic food is yogurt; other sources include bacteria-fermented foods, including sauerkraut, kombucha, and kimchi.

Sources:

  • Shreiner AB, Kao JY, Young VB. The gut microbiome in health and in disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2015;31(1):69–75. doi:10.1097/MOG.0000000000000139.
  • Foster JA, Lyte M, Meyer E, Cryan JF. Gut microbiota and brain function: An evolving field in neuroscience. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;19(5):1–7. doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyv114.
  • Jandhyala S, Talukdar R, Subramanyam C, Vuyyuru H, Sasikala M, Reddy D. Role of the normal gut microbiota. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(29):8787–8803.

Citrus Infused Water

Fruit slicesIngredients:

• 1/2 orange
• 1/2 lemon
• 1/2 grapefruit
• 1 cup ice
• Cold water

Instructions:

  1. Add fruit to a two-quart pitcher.
  2. Gently press fruit with a spoon to release some of the juices.
  3. Add ice to the pitcher, then fill with cold water; stir.
  4. Serve immediately or chill, covered, in the refrigerator.

 

Get creative or try these seasonal combinations:
Apple + Cinnamon Stick
Cranberry + Orange

Recipe used with permission from West Virginia University Extension Service.

Did Your Exercise Goals Take a Holiday?

Goal

The holiday season is a busy time of year, which may make it hard to get in the recommended 30 minutes of moderate physical activity five days a week. Even when these recommendations are met, there is an increased risk for chronic disease when you are sitting for a prolonged period of time. There are plenty of ways to get moving, though. For instance, take the stairs instead of the elevator, walk the hallways at work on breaks, stand while you’re on the phone, or stretch a couple minutes for every hour of prolonged sitting. At home, complete floor exercises during commercial breaks or march in place while you’re cooking in the kitchen. These are small steps to reduce sedentary time and increase activity.

You can even enjoy the winter weather while getting in some exercise. Activities like ice skating, snowball fights, sledding, and making snow angels count toward your daily physical activity minutes.

Source: eatright.org

Small Changes Add Up for Better Health

My plate picture

Food portions can be a challenge, but choosing sensible amounts of all food is important for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The best way to achieve and maintain a healthy weight is to make small, long-term changes in what you eat and drink, along with getting daily physical activity.

Follow the MyPlate healthy eating food plan:

  • Make half your plate fruits and vegetables—think variety and make it colorful.
  • Make half your grains whole grains.
  • Choose low-fat and fat-free dairy products.
  • Vary your protein—poultry, seafood, meat, eggs, nuts, and beans.

Other helpful tips:

  • Avoid portion distortion—read labels, measure, and place servings into containers or baggies.
  • Record the amount of food you eat with a three- to five-day food journal—you might be surprised!
  • Use smaller bowls and plates at mealtime.
  • Choose foods with less saturated fats, sodium, and added sugar.
  • Cook more often at home to control the ingredients in your food.
  • When dining out, look at nutritional information before ordering.
  • Drink water or low-calorie beverages with meals.
  • Get the recommended 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity each week.

Set realistic and achievable goals for your health. Remember, if you slip up one day don’t dwell on it, just press on with your health goals in mind. Download Key Nutrients from the Extension Store for additional information.

Let’s Deskercise!

Do you sit at a desk for prolonged periods during the day? If so, try deskercising to reduce the harmful effects of sitting for long periods of time. Deskercise includes 20 short bouts of cardiovascular, strength, and stretching exercises that can be performed at your desk throughout the day. To download a free poster—Deskercise! 20 Ways to Get Moving While You Work—from The National Center on Health, Physical Activity and Disability (NCHPAD).

Other ways to get moving at work include the following:Less Sitting More Walking

  • Take a quick walk around the office every time you need a refill of coffee or water.
  • Instead of emailing your coworker a few offices down, get up and go converse in person.
  • Pace while on long conference calls.
  • Have a walking/pushing meeting.
  • Take the long route to the restroom.
  • Swap your office chair for a stability ball.

 

Source: Desker-what?, NCHPAD

Holiday Mealtime

During the holiday season, don’t forget to make time for family meals. Children who often eat dinner with their families are more likely to do well in school, have positive peer relationships, and resist the harmful effects of substance abuse. In addition, regular family mealtime improves communication and nutrition, builds stronger family bonds, and is an opportunity for parents to teach important skills to their children. Furthermore, meals prepared at home are often less expensive and more nutrient rich.

Here are ways to enjoy family mealtime during busy holiday schedules:

  • Make family mealtime a priority. Set aside specific times of the week when family members will eat together.Family eating
  • Be creative and flexible about when and where you eat. Make the most of opportunities instead of worrying about following a strict timetable.
  • Make mealtime pleasant. Children learn social skills from listening and watching their parents. Parents can set a positive tone for family meals and set a good example by listening and sharing.
  • Eliminate distractions. Turn off the electronic devices (cell phones, television, etc.). Commit to device-free meals on or during the week of December 3, 2018, by participating in the initiative “Dining In” for Healthy Families, from the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences.
  • Keep meals simple and easy. Use a slow cooker to prepare a meal that can be ready to eat when the family is ready to eat.
  • Use family mealtime Conversation Cards.

 

Source: Adapted from PM 1842, Say “Yes” to Family Meals, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, March 2015

The Scoop on Hot Yoga

Hot Yoga

Not a big fan of warm or hot yoga? Don’t sweat it! A new study published in the Journal of Experimental Physiology showed that participants who worked up a sweat in hot yoga got the same heart health benefits as those who did yoga at room temperature.

Bikram (hot) yoga has been increasing in popularity. It consists of 26 yoga poses done in a room heated to 105oF. Researchers compared adults who took three 90-minute yoga classes a week (either hot or at room temperature) over 12 weeks. These adults were also compared with a control group of people who did no yoga at all. The hot-yoga group did decrease their body fat more than the room-temperature yoga or control groups. However, people in both yoga groups showed improved heart health. So, if health and vitality are your goals, you can choose either form of yoga.

 

Source: Hunter SD, Laosiripisan J, Elmenshawy A, Tanaka H. Effects of yoga interventions practiced in heated and thermoneutral conditions on endothelium-dependent vasodilation: The Bikram yoga heart study. Experimental Physiology. 2018;103:391–396.

Black Bean Burgers

Black Bean Burger

Serving Size: 1 burger | Serves: 4

Ingredients

  • 1 can low sodium black beans (drained and rinsed)
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • 1/2 cup bread crumbs
  • 1/4 cup onion, minced
  • 1/4 teaspoon pepper
  • 1 tablespoon oil
  • Optional: cheese slices, lettuce leaves, mushrooms, onion, tomato, whole wheat bread or hamburger buns

Instructions

  1. Mash beans with a fork.
  2. Stir mashed beans, egg, bread crumbs, onion, pepper, and oil together until combined. Shape into 4-inch patties. Wash hands.
  3. Heat a skillet over medium heat. Spray with nonstick cooking spray.
  4. Place patties in the skillet and cover with a lid. Cook patties for 5 minutes on the first side. Flip patties and cook for 4 more minutes on the other side.
  5. Serve with optional ingredients.

Nutrition information per serving:

200 calories, 6g total fat, 1g saturated fat, 0g trans fat, 45mg cholesterol, 260mg sodium, 28g total carbohydrate, 8g fiber, 2g sugar, 10g protein

Recipe courtesy of ISU Extension and Outreach’s Spend Smart. Eat Smart. website. For more information, recipes, and videos, visit spendsmart.extension.iastate.edu.

The Flexitarian Diet: A Flexible Way to Eat Well

A new term in the world of diets is the Flexitarian Diet. The mission of the Flexitarian Diet is to add more plant-based foods to your diet. Flexitarians eat less meat than they used to, but don’t give it up completely. The Flexitarian Diet has benefits like those seen with vegetarian diets—a reduced risk of heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. The American Heart Association encourages the Flexitarian Diet as a good compromise to promote heart health. This way of eating can be fun—and may save you money!

Try these simple tips:

  • Find ways to replace meat at your meals with legumes or soy products. For example, have a black bean burger instead of a hamburger.Flexitarian - fruits and vegetables
  • Start out small, by making just one meal each week meatless. You may find you enjoy the variety.
  • Visit the Extension Store to download a free copy of Dried Beans, Peas, and Lentils Can Help You Save $$.
  • Find vegetarian recipes on the American Heart Association website.
  • When you do eat meat, select a lean cut. Lean cuts of meat include the words “loin” or “round.” After cooking, rinse ground meat with water and drain to reduce fat content. Limit your daily intake to 6 ounces.

Sources:

Melina V., Craig W., Levin S. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2016;116(12):1970–1980.

American Heart Association. Vegetarian, Vegan and Meals Without Meat. Last Reviewed January 27, 2017.

Resistance Training Prevents Sarcopenia

woman lifting weights

Sarcopenia is the decline of skeletal muscle tissue, or muscle mass, as we age. The loss of this muscle progressively impairs the strength and balance of older adults until they can no longer perform daily activities independently.

You can prevent or reverse sarcopenia by staying physically active, particularly with resistance training and weight-bearing exercises. Resistance training (using resistance bands or lifting weights) has shown the best results for building and maintaining muscle. However, other weight-bearing exercises, such as walking, hiking, jogging, climbing stairs, dancing, or tennis, are beneficial as well.

The more we use our muscles, the bigger they grow! It’s never too early—or too late—to start strengthening our muscles to stay independent for life. To find out more, download “Stay Independent, Prevent Sarcopenia”.

Source: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4849483/

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